The career growth for the Software Tester profile has been tremendous over the past few years. Software Testing plays a vital role in several product applications and product implementation of business. Based on the report submitted by PayScale.com the Software Tester is the most demanded job in reputed companies like Tata Consultancy Services, Cognizant, Infosys, Accenture, HCL, and Wipro. It is stated that the Software Testing profile has a huge demand across India and the opportunities of beginning your career in Software Testing field is higher.
Below are the 101 Software Testing Interview Questions and Answers that are asked frequently to the candidates in an Interview. These 101 Software Testing Interview Questions is a comprehensive set of Interview Questions which covers entire topics of Software Testing like performance testing tools, bug life cycle, manual testing, automation testing, requirement trace-ability matrix, test fusion report of QTP , differences between software testing and debugging, and Roles of the QA in a development project. Go through this Interview Questions before taking up an Interview and get acquainted with a wide range of Software Testing Interview Questions.
- What are the various levels of testing?
There are four major levels of testing and they are,
- Unit Testing
- System Testing
- Acceptance Testing
- Integration Testing.
- Elucidate Monkey Testing.
It is a technique used in the software testing where the applications are tested using ingesting inputs randomly. Monkey Testing does not follow any of the predefined set of rules. This is carried out for checking the behavior of application.
- What is the basic difference between Software Development Life Cycle(SDLC) and Software Testing Life Cycle(STLC)?
The SDLC primarily deals with the coding / development of a Software. While the STLC deals with the verification and validation of a software
- What is Quality Assurance?
Quality Assurance involves the activities of a process-oriented approach for certifying the Software Development method. It is performed to make sure that the correct rules and procedures are followed. Quality Assurance may bring changes to the process and you may need to replace the weak practices if the QA process identifies any. The QA process involves activities like inspection of documents, source codes, test cases, and automation.
- Explain “Use Case Testing”?
To identifying and executing the functional requirement of the application from the start to the end “use case”is used. The techniques that are used to performing this is called as “Use Case Testing”.
- What do you mean by trace-ability matrix?
The document which shows the relationship between the test cases and requirements is known as trace-ability matrix.
- Explain Verification in Software Testing?
A verification is the Static Analysis Technique. The Testing is done here without executing the codes. Also, this is the process that makes sure whether we are directing in the right direction in building a product right. Examples include Inspection, Reviews, and Walk through.
- What do you mean by Validation in Software Testing?
Validation is a dynamic analysis technique. Where the testing is performed by executing the code. This is done to validate the product is right or not that has been developed. For Example Functional and Non – Functional testing techniques.
- What is Quality Control?
This is also a product-oriented approach. It is performed to qualify the product that is under development and it meets the original software specifications. Quality Control results in changes to the products. For instance, if there are any bugs in the system or if any deviation takes place during the implementation, this uses the program or codes for identifying the defects on the software applications.
- Mention the phases that are involved in the Software Testing Life Cycle?
The phases involved in the Software Testing Life Cycle are as follows,
- Test Planning
- Test Case Development
- Environment Set Up
- Test Execution
- Test Cycle Closure.These are the Basic Software Testing Interview Questions for freshers and experienced.
- How do you perform Spike Testing in JMeter?
The JMeter comes with the synchronizing timer that can handle the requests of various threads. Spike Testing in the JMeter could gather the required number of threads. Then, release them at once to cause a spike.
- Differentiate between Software Testing and Debugging.
||Conditions are known, expected outcomes and predefined methods.
||The Conditions are unknown, outcomes are unpredictable and the methods are not present.
||Design knowledge is not required.
||Design knowledge is required.
||Finding a bug or error.
||Finding the cause of the error or bug.
- Explain Silk Test?
A Silk Test is the tool that is used for performing regression and the functionalities of the testing application. This tool is primarily used while we test the applications based on Java, Windows, Web, or the traditional server/client. The Silk Test helps in making the test plan and managing those test plans for providing direct access to the database and the field validation.
- List the key role of QA in project Development.
The QA plays the major role in the project Development. Some of the highlights are mentioned below,
- Reduce the errors and defects.
- Prevents the defects from occurring.
- Maintains the quality of the system as per the requirements.
- Test the projects on a failure parameter to check the fault tolerance.
- What are the various methods of testing?
Testing has three methods and they are listed below,
- Black-Box Testing
- White-Box Testing
- Grey-Box Testing.
- Explain Test Case?
The Test case is nothing but a set of variables or conditions under which the tester would determine whether the system under the test satisfies the requirements or works properly.
- What are the different categories of defects?
There are three different categories of defects are as follows,
- Mention the benefits of Automation Testing?
The benefits of the Automation Testing are as follows,
- Automation supports execution of the repeated test cases.
- It aids in testing the large test matrix.
- This enables parallel execution.
- Encourages unattended execution.
- It increases the accuracy and thus reduces human- generated errors.
- Automation Saves Time and Money.
- State the reason why Selenium is the chosen tool for Automation Testing?
- Selenium is the Open-Source tool that is used for automating the test which is carried out on the web browsers.
- As Selenium is the open-source, licensing cost is not involved. This is the major advantage compared to other testing tool.
- Testing scripts could be written in any of the programming languages like Python, Java, C++, PHP, Ruby, DOT Net and Perl.
- Testing could be carried out using any of the Web Browser like Mozilla, Google Chrome, Safera, and Internet Explorer.
- It can be used in integrating with tools such as TestNG and JUnit for generating reports and managing tests.
- This could also be integrated with Jenkins, Maven, and Docker for achieving Continuous Testing.
- The Testing could be carried out in any of the Operating Systems like Windows, Linux, or Mac.
- Why should I use the Selenium Grid?
The Selenium Grid can be used in executing the different test or same scripts on various platforms and browsers concurrently for achieving distributed test execution. Also,testing under various environments and saving the execution time remarkably. These are the Common Software Testing Interview Questions for fresher in an Interview.
- What are the different components of Selenium?
The Different Components of Selenium are as follows,
- Selenium Grid
- Selenium Web Driver
- Selenium Remote Control
- Selenium Integrated Development Environment (IDE).
- What is the basic difference between baseline and benchmark testing?
The Baseline Testing runs on the set of tests to determine the performance, while Benchmark testing compares the application performance with the industry standards. The Baseline testing aims to improve the performance with the help of collected information and the benchmark testing helps to improve performance by matching it with the benchmarks.
- What are the various types of locators in the Selenium?
The locators are nothing but the address that identifies the web element uniquely within a web page. Hence, to identify the web elements precisely and accurately we have various types of locators in the Selenium are as follows,
- Class Name
- Tag Name
- link Text
- Partial Link Text
- CSS Selector
- What is Elementary process and what are the types of Elementary process?
The Software Applications are made using several elementary processes and there are two types of Elementary processes and they are:
- Dynamic Elementary Process
- Static Elementary Process.
- What are the various exceptions in the Selenium Web Driver?
Exceptions in the Selenium are similar to the exception in the other programming languages. The common exceptions in the Selenium are as follows:
- Timeout Exception
- Stale Element Exception
- No Such Element Exception
- Element Not Visible Exception.
- Differentiate between the functional and non-functional testing?
||Non Functional Testing
|It is performed prior non-functional testing.
||This is performed after Functional Testing.
|Functional Testing is done based on Customer Requirements.
||This functions based on the customers expectations.
|Functional Testing Describes what a product does.
||It Describes how the product works.
- What do you mean by coverage and list the different types of Coverage Techniques?
The parameters that are used in the Software Testing for describing the extent to which the source codes are tested is called coverage. There are three types of coverage techniques and they are as follows,
- Path Coverage
- Decision Coverage
- Statement Coverage
- What is Boundary Value Analysis (BVA) ?
The Boundary Value Analysis(BVA) is the Black Box Test design technique which is primarily applied to see if there are any bugs at the boundary of an input domain.
- What are the tests that can be automated?
The Tests that could be automated are as follows,
- Smoke test cases
- Regression test cases
- Data-driven test cases
- Non-functional test cases
- Complex calculation test cases.
- What do you verify in the White Box Testing?
In the White box testing the following steps are to be verified:
- Checking the Security holes on the code.
- Verifying the incomplete or the broken paths in the code.
- Checking the flow structure based on the document specification.
- Verifying the expected outputs.
- Checking all the conditional loops on the code and to check the functionality of the application.
- Verifying every line coding and provide 100% testing. These are the Basic Software Testing Interview Question that are put forth to a fresher in an Interview.
- What do you mean by Static Testing?
Static Testing is the process of reviewing the documents to find the defects at the earlier stages of SDLC.
- What is Black Box Testing?
This is a testing strategy that is based solely on the specification and requirements. This Strategy requires no knowledge of structures, internal paths, or the implementation of software being tested.
- What do you mean by Dynamic Testing?
Dynamic testing involves the execution of code. This validates the output only with the expected returns.
- Explain Integration Testing?
Integration Testing is the level of the software testing process, where the individual units of the application are combined and tested. This is usually performed later in functional and unit testing.
- List the basis of the acceptance plan and when should it be prepared?
Generally, the acceptance document is prepared during the following inputs. Below is the basis of the acceptance plan.
- Requirement document: This Specifies exactly what is needed in a project from the customer perspective.
- Input from customers: This could be discussions, emails, and informal talks.
- Project Plan: The project plan is usually prepared by a project manager which serves a good input to finalize an acceptance test.
- List the types of Web Testing Security problems?
The types of Web Security problems are as follows,
- Buffer overflow
- Viewing other stats
- Denial of Service (DOS) attack
- Directly passing the internal URL through browser address.
- Explain the types of Coverage?
- Statement Coverage: This ensures that every line of the code is been tested and executed.
- Decision Coverage: This coverage assures that all decisions (true/false) on the source code is been tested and executed.
- Path Coverage: In this, we ensure that all possible route from a given part of the code is tested and executed.
- Is it possible to do system testing at any stage?
No. System testing could start only when the modules are in place and they work properly. But, it should be performed before User Acceptance Testing (UAT).
- What are the types of Software Testing?
The various types of Software Testing are as follows,
- Unit testing
- Load testing
- Stress testing
- System testing
- Endurance testing
- Integration testing
- Regression testing
- Shakeout testing
- Smoke testing
- Functional testing
- Performance testing
- Alpha and Beta testing
- White-box and Black-box testing.
- What do you mean by Agile Testing and what is the importance of Agile Testing?
It is a Software Testing process that evaluates the software from a customer’s point of view. This is favorable as this does not require the development team for completing the coding for starting the QA. Rather, both testing and coding go hand in hand. This requires continuous customer interaction. These are the Basic Software Testing Interview Questions for freshers.
- Elucidate White Box Testing?
The White Box Testing is also known as Clear Box, Glass Box, and Structural Testing. This is based on the applications of the internal code structure. White-Box testing is the internal perspective and programming skills of a system that is used in design testing cases. The White Box Testing is usually performed at the unit level.
- What does a test plan consist of?
The Test Plan consists of the following,
- Test deliverables
- Test case identifier
- Staffing and training
- Risk and Contingencies
- Features to be tested
- Features not to be tested
- Test strategy & test approach.
- Mention the valuable steps for resolving the issues while listing?
- Record: It logs and handles any problems that have occurred.
- Report: The Report should be issued to the higher-level manager.
- Control: This defines issue management process.
- Differentiate between Data Driven Testing and Retesting?
|The Data-Driven testing process an application that is tested with various test data. The application is usually tested with a different set of values.
||This is a process of checking the bugs that are actioned by a development team for verifying that they have been fixed.
- What are the various types of black-box testing techniques?
The various types of Black Box Testing Techniques are as follows:
- Cause-effect graphing
- Equivalence Partitioning
- Boundary value analysis.
- What is regression testing?
This is defined as the type of Software Testing that is used in confirming the recent code that has not changed adversely while affecting the existing features.
- Explain Latent Defect?
The Latent Defect is the existing defect in the system that does not cause failure to the exact set of conditions that has never met.
- What is Positive testing?
This is used in determining what a system is supposed to do. This helps to check whether an application is justifying a requirement or not.
- Name the two parameters that are useful for knowing the quality of test execution?
For knowing the quality of test execution we could use two parameters and they are
- Defect reject ratio
- Defect leakage ratio
- What is Negative Testing?
This is used in determining what a system is not supposed to do. This helps in finding a defect from the software. These are the Common Software Testing Interview Questions that are asked to a fresher and experienced candidate in an Interview.
- What is UAT?
User Acceptance Testing (UAT) involves running a product through a series of specific tests that determine whether a product would meet the requirements of its users.
- What is System Testing?
The System Testing finds the defects when a system undergoes testing completely. It is also called end-to-end testing. In this type of testing, the application would suffer from the beginning to the end.
- Explain Test Bed?
This is an environment that is configured for testing. The Testbed consists of software, hardware, network configuration, an application under test and other related software issues.
- What is a Test Strategy?
The Test Strategy is a high-level document and is usually developed by a project manager. This document captures the approach of how we test the products and achieve the goals. This is normally derived from the Business Requirement Specification (BRS). Documents such as Test Plan are prepared by using this document as the base.
- Mention the purpose of the end-to-end testing?
End-To-End testing is the testing strategy that executes test which covers all possible flow of the application from its beginning to the finish. The reason for performing an end-to-end test is to identify the software dependencies. Also, to assert the input that is passed between multiple subsystems and software modules.
- Explain Testng?
This is the advanced framework that is designed in a way to leverage the benefits of developers and testers. This has the inbuilt exception handling mechanism which allows a program to run without terminating suddenly.
- Explain a Test Suite?
The Test Suite is a collection of test cases. The test cases are intended for testing an application.
- Explain a Test Scenario?
A Test Scenario gives the idea of what we need to test. The Test Scenario is generally like a high-level test case.
- What are the various strategies of rollout to end-users?
Given below are the various strategies of rollout to the end-users,
- Gradual Implementation
- Phased Implementation
- Parallel Implementation
- Elucidate a Test Case?
The Test cases are a set of positive and negative executable steps of the test scenario that has a set of pre-conditions like the expected result, test data, actual results, and post-conditions. These are the Basic Software Testing Interview Questions that are asked to a fresher in an Interview.
- Explain a Test Coverage?
The Test Coverage helps to measure the amount of testing that is performed by a set of tests. The Test coverage could be done for both functional and non-functional activities. This assists the testers for creating a test that covers an area that is missing.
- What do you mean by Code coverage?
A Code Coverage is different from the Test Coverage. The Code Coverage is all about unit testing practices that should target all the areas of the code. This is usually done by the developers or unit tester.
- Elucidate Mutation Testing?
Mutation testing is a technique that is used for identifying a set of test data or test case that is useful. By introducing different code changes and retesting with the original test cases/data for determining the bugs that are attached.
- What are the things that are to be taken into consideration before choosing the automation tools for the AUT?
The following are things that are to be taken in consideration before choosing Automation tools for AUT,
- Test data
- Application size
- Complexity level
- Technical Feasibility
- Application stability
- Re-usability of automated scripts
- Execution across an environment.
Some of the Web Testing Tools are listed below,
- List some of the Web Testing Tools.
- SOA test
- iMacros, etc.
- eggplant functional.
- What are the test case formats in the case of the Static Website and Dynamic Website?
The following test case formats that are used in the case of Static Websites are
- Front-end test cases
- Navigation test cases
The following test case formats that are used in the case of Dynamic websites:
- Front-end test cases
- Back-end test cases
- Navigation test cases
- Field validation test cases
- Security test cases, etc.
- How do you conduct Risk Analysis?
The following are the risk analysis steps that are needed to be implemented,
- Finding a score of the risk
- Making the profile for the risk
- Changing the risk properties
- Deploying the resources of test risk
- Making the database of risk
- How do severity and priority are related to each other?
- Severity: This represents the depth/gravity of the bug. This describes an application point of view.
- Priority: This specifies the bug that should be fixed first.
This defines the user’s point of view.
- What does a fault mean in Software Testing?
The fault is the condition which makes the software to fail and execute while performing a considered function.
- List the categories of debugging?
The characteristics of debugging are as follows
- Cause elimination
- Program Slicing
- Fault tree analysis
- Brute force debugging. These are the Basic Software Testing Interview Questions that are asked to freshers in an Interview.
- Explain Globalization Testing?
Globalization testing concentrates on detecting potential problems in the product design which could spoil globalization. This certifies that code could handle desired international support by not breaking any functionality. Also, this ensures there would not be any data loss or display problems.
- What do you mean by Alpha Testing?
Alpha Testing is performed by in-house developers and testers. Few Alpha Testing is performed by the client or the outsourcing team with the presence of the testers or developers.
- What are stubs and drivers in Manual Testing?
The Stubs and Drivers are part of incremental testing. On the incremental testing, we have two approaches they are a top-down and bottom-up approach. Drivers are used in bottom-up testing. A stub is used in the top-down approach. For testing the main module, a stub is used that is a dummy program or code.
- What do you mean by Data Flow Diagram (DFD)?
The “flow of data” through the information system is graphically represented and this is called as Data Flow Diagram. This is also used in the visualization of data processing.
- What are the basic components of the defect report format?
Below are the essential components of the defect report format,
- Project Name
- Module Name
- Defect resolved by
- Defect resolved on
- Defect detected on
- Defect detected by
- Defect ID and Name
- Snapshot of the defect
- Priority and Severity status
- What are the various types of Severity?
Generally, a bug could be low, medium or high based on the context. Given below instances explains briefly when would a bug be low, medium, or high.
- User interface defects – Low
- Boundary related defects – Medium
- Error handling defects – Medium
- Load conditions – High
- Hardware failures – High
- Calculation defects – High
- Misinterpreted data – High
- Compatibility issues – High
- Control flow defects – High
- Explain Beta Testing?
Beta Testing is performed by the limited number of end-users before the delivery. Generally, this is done at the Client’s place.
- Why Usability Testing is performed?
Usability testing is performed to check whether the end-users are capable of understanding and operating the application.
- Explain Volume Testing.
This is test is done to check the application/system whether a system could handle enormous amounts of data.
- What is the need for exit criteria?
The need for exit criteria is to define when the test level is completed. These are the Basic Software Testing Interview Questions that are asked to a fresher in an Interview.
- When do you use Decision table testing?
We use the Decision Table Testing that is used for testing systems for which a specification takes from the cause-effect or rules combinations. On a decision table, the inputs are listed on a column, with outputs on the same column but below an input. A reminder of a table explores the combination of the inputs for defining the outputs produced.
- What is the major objective while reviewing the software deliverable?
The main objective of reviewing the software deliverable is to identify the defects on any of the software work products.
- Explain the benefit of test independence?
The benefit of test independence is to avoid author bias while defining effective tests.
- Which one would define the expected results of the test? A test case specification or the design specification?
A Test Case specification would define the expected results of the test.
- Explain Grey-Box testing?
The Grey-Box is the strategy for Software debugging in the tester that has limited knowledge of internal details of a program.
- Elucidate Workbench concept?
The Workbench is the way of documenting how a specific activity has to be performed. This is often referred to as steps, phases, and tasks. The following are the five tasks for each workbench and they are listed below,
- Production output
- What do you mean by Defect Cascading?
A Defect Cascading is the defect that is caused by other defects. Usually, one defect triggers another defect. If a defect is present at any stage and it is not identified or hidden to other phases without being noticed, this will result in an increased number of defects.
- How do you skip a method or the code block in the TestNG?
For skipping a particular test method or code, you should set the “enabled” parameter on test annotation to false.
@Test(enabled = false)
- What is the reason for static and dynamic testing is described as complementary?
As they share the common aim of identifying a defect but differ only in the type of finding a defect.
- List the different methodologies in the Agile Development Model?
We have seven different agile methodologies in the Agile Development and they are
- Agile Unified Process
- Extreme Programming (XP)
- Lean Software Development
- Feature-Driven Development
- Dynamic Systems Development Model (DSDM). These are the Common Software Testing Interview Questions that are asked to a fresher in an Interview.
- When does a configuration management procedure should be implemented?
The Configuration management procedure must be implemented during test planning.
- Explain Bug Release?
Releasing a Software to production with known bugs is called Bug Release. Also, the known bugs should be included on a release note.
- What do you mean by Test Closure?
A test closure is a note that is prepared before the test team formally and completes a testing process. This note consists of the following,
- Total number of test cases
- Total number of test cases executed
- Total number of defects found
- Total number of defects fixed
- Total number of defects that are not fixed
- Total number of bugs rejected.
- Explain Sanity Testing.
Sanity Testing is performed during a release phase to identify the main functionalities of an application without getting deeper. This is also called as the Subset of Regression Testing. This is performed at a release level. During certain time due to the release time constraints, rigorous regression testing could not be done to build and sanity testing performs the part of checking the main functionalities.
- Elucidate Gamma Testing?
Gamma Testing is performed while the software is ready for a release with specified requirements and the testing is done directly on skipping all in-house testing activities.
- What Testing Activity is done to expose the defects in an interface and in the interaction between integrated components
The Integration Level Testing activity is used.
- If a fault is identified who should originally document it?
It should be documented by the testers.
- What is the type of review that is required for formal entry and exit criteria?
The Inspection review is required for formal entry and exit criteria.
- What do you mean by Data-Driven Testing?
This is an Automation process in which the application is tested with multiple sets of data with various preconditions and as the input to a script.
- Explain Error Seeding?
The Error seeding is the process of adding known errors intentionally to a program for identifying the pace of error detection. This helps in the procedure of estimating the tester skills of identifying the bugs and to know the functionality of an application. These are the Basic Software Testing Interview Questions that are asked to a fresher in an Interview.
- How to estimate the amount of re-testing likely to be required?
For estimating the amount of re-testing, we could use the metrics from the previous projects. The projects that are similar and also we could have a discussion with the development team.
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