DevOps interview questions and answers

DevOps is the set of practices that combines software development and software operations to optimize the development life cycle and provide delivery continuously with high software quality.  The DevOps Engineer is the most demanded job at present. Given below are the set of Basic Interview Questions for freshers and Experienced candidates in a DevOps  Interview.  These questions are designed by the professional experts of our institute after extensive research.

  1. What is DevOps?

The name DevOps states it clear that it is the collaboration of Development and Operation practices in an organization.

DevOps is not a tool or framework. It is the combination of tools that helps in automation of the complete infrastructure.

DevOps is primarily the implementation of Agile methodology on both the Development and Operational side of the process.

  1. What are the benefits of NoSQL?
  • A non-relational and schema-less data model
  • Provides low latency and high performance
  • It is highly scalable
  1. What is the need for DevOps?

The purpose of DevOps is to deliver a faster and better application to meet the demands of the user and benefit the organization. It also helps rapidly in the deployment process compared to other tools.

  1. List the key aspects or principles behind DevOps?

The key aspects or principle behind DevOps are listed below

  • Security
  • Automation
  • Continuous Integration
  • Continuous Monitoring
  • Infrastructure as a Code
  • Continuous Deployment.
  1. What are some of the popular tools for DevOps?

Listed below are some of the popular tools for DevOps

  • Git
  • Jenkins
  • Ansible
  • Puppet
  • Nagios
  • Docker
  • ELK (Elasticsearch, Logstash, Kibana)
  1. How to make sure that New Service is ready for the Products Launched?
  • Monitoring
  • Backup System
  • Recovery plans
  • Load Balancing
  • Centralized logging
  1. What language is used in Git?

Git is written using the C language. Since it is written in C language it’s easy to reduce the overhead of runtimes.

  1. What do you mean by SubGit?

SubGit is the tool that is used for migrating SVN to Git. This creates a writable Git mirror of the local or remote Subversion repository.

  1. List the Advantages of Ansible?
  • Idempotent
  • Very easy to learn
  • Very low overhead
  • Good performance
  • Declarative, not procedural
  • Agentless, it does not require any extra package or daemons to be installed
  1. How DevOps is helpful to developers?

It helps fix the bug and implement new features quickly. This provides clarity of communication among team members. These are the Basic Interview Questions that are asked in a DevOps Interview to freshers

  1. What is a Docker?

Docker is the containerization technology that packages the application and it dependencies together in the form of containers to make sure that the application work easily in any environment.

  1. Name the popular scripting language of DevOps?

The popular scripting language of DevOps is Python.

  1. What is a Docker image?

Docker image are the source of Docker container. Or we can define Docker images are used to create containers.

  1. What is kernel?

A kernel is the lowest level of easily replaceable software that interfaces with the hardware of your computer.

  1. What are Vagrant and its uses?

Vagrant are used as virtual box that hypervisor the environments in the current scenario and also it supports the KVM. It is the tool that is used for creating and managing environment for developing and testing software. These are the General DevOps Interview Questions that are asked to a fresher in the DevOps interview.

  1. What is the concept of sudo in Linux?

Sudo is the utility for Linux and Unix based systems that provide an efficient way to permit specific users to use the specific system commands from the root level of the system.

  1. What is a Jenkins Pipeline?

Jenkins Pipeline is a suite of plugins that supports the implementation and integration of constant delivery of pipelines to Jenkins.

  1. What is docker-compose?

When you want to run various docker containers, during that time you have to create the docker-compose file and type the command docker compose-up.  This, in turn, will run all the containers mentioned in the docker-compose file.

  1. What are the platforms does Docker run on?

Docker runs only on the Linux and Cloud platforms.

Linux:

  • Gentoo
  • ArchLinux
  • CRUX 3.0+
  • CentOS 6+
  • RHEL 6.5+
  • Fedora 20+
  • openSUSE 12.3+
  • Ubuntu 12.04 LTS+

Cloud:

  • Amazon EC2
  • Rackspace
  • Microsoft Azure
  • Google Compute Engine.

Also, it is to be noted that Docker does not run on Mac or Windows as there is no support. We can use it for testing purposes only that too in Windows.

  1. How to stop and restart the Docker container?

To Stop the container:  Enter the docker stop container ID

To restart the Docker container:  Type the docker restart container ID.

These are the Common Interview Questions for freshers in the DevOps Interview.

  1. What is Scrum?

The Scrum is used in dividing the complex software and product development task into smaller chunks by using iterations and incremental practice. The time duration of each iteration is 2 weeks.

  1. What are the areas where the DevOps are implemented?
  • Production Development
  • IT Operations development
  • Creation of the production feedback and its development
  1. What are the advantages of DevOps regarding Technical aspects?

The technical benefits are listed below.

  • Manpower is reduced.
  • Software delivery is continuous.
  • Reduces Complexity in problems.
  • Faster approach to resolve problems.
  1. What do you mean by the “Index”  or ” Staging ” area on the GIT?

Prior to committing the file, it should be formatted and reviewed on the intermediate area which is known as “Staging Area” or ” Indexing Area”

#git add <file_name>

  1. List the advantages of  DevOps regarding business aspects.

The Business benefits DevOps is listed below.

  • Stable operating environments.
  • More time gained to Add values.
  • A high rate of delivering its features.
  • Enabling faster feature time to market.

DevOps Training at FITA provides the necessary professional training to the students and train them efficiently to equip themselves in a professional environment.

  1. Differentiate  between Maven, Ant, and Jenkins?

Ant and Maven are Build technologies while Jenkins is the continuous Integration (CI/CD) tool.

  1. Which are the core operations of DevOps in terms of  Infrastructure and Development?

The core operation of the DevOps is

  • Unit testing
  • Packaging
  • Unit testing
  • Deployment
  • Provisioning
  • Configuration
  • Orchestration
  • Code coverage
  • Code developing
  • Application development
  • Deployment With infrastructure
  1. Explain Continuous Integration.

While multiple developers or team who works on various segments of web application they need to perform the integration test by integrating the modules.  To perform the automated process for every piece of code it should be performed regularly and the code should be tested.  The complete process is termed as Continuous Integration.

  1. What are the SCM tools that Jenkins supports?

The SCM tools that are supported by the Jenkins are as follows.

  • Git
  • CVS
  • RTC
  • Perforce
  • AccuRev
  • Mercurial
  • Clearcase
  • Subversion
  1. State the relation between Hudson and Jenkins

Earlier  Jenkins was called Hudson. Due to some issues that were faced in a project the name was changed to Jenkins from Hudson.

  1. Mention any three advantages of Jenkins
  • The Bug Tracking is done easily in the earlier stage of the development environment.
  • It provides a large number of plugin support.
  • It will notify the developer with build reports or support failures that can be integrated with the LDAP mail server.
  1. What is an Ansible?

The Ansible is the software that configures the management tool to deploy the application using without any downtime. This is also used for the configuration and management of software applications. Also, Ansible is developed in the Python language.

  1. How do you check the existing status of the commands?

echo $?

  1. Explain the uses of top DevOps tools?

The uses of top DevOps tools are as follows.

  • Docker: Containerization tool
  • GIT: Version Control System tool
  • Selenium: Continuous Testing tool
  • Nagios: Continuous Monitoring tool
  • Jenkins: Continuous Integration tool
  • Puppet, Chef, Ansible: Configuration Management and Deployment tools
  1. List the advantages of GIT
  • High Availability
  • User-friendly and collaborative.
  • Reduces Data Redundancy and Replication
  • GIT can be used in any projects

These are the General DevOps Interview Questions that are asked to a fresher in an Interview.

  1. Explain the necessity of DevOps?

Corporations are currently facing the necessity of processing quicker and improved requests to meet the persistent demands of the users to decrease the time and earn more profits to the business. And thus DevOps helps the organization in achieving its mission.

  1. Why the Incessant Testing is significant for DevOps?

It permits any change that is made in the code to be tested directly.

  1. How would you differentiate between DevOps and Agile?

Agile is a technology that is all about software development. Whereas DevOps is a technology that is used for Software Deployment and Management.

  1. What are the types of HTTP requests?

A few types of Http requests are as follows

  • GET
  • PUT
  • HEAD
  • POST
  • PATCH
  • TRACE
  • DELETE
  • CONNECT
  • OPTIONS
  1. What are the measures you would take to handle the revision version control?

For managing a successful revision control, it is required to post the code on SourceForge or GitHub because everyone on the team could view it from there. Also, there is an option for viewers to suggest for improvement.

  1. Elucidate the DevOps Toolchain?

Here is the DevOps toolchain-

  • Code
  • Test
  • Build
  • Package
  • Release
  • Configure
  • Monitor
  1. What do you understand from the term build?

The build is the method on the source code where the source code is put together to check how it functions as a single unit. In the entire process, the source code would undergo four main processes they are a compilation, testing, inspection, and deployment.

  1. Name some of the  branching strategies used in DevOps

A few branching strategies that are used in DevOps are-

  • Feature Branching
  • Task Branching
  • Release Branching
  1. Explain the core operations of DevOps regarding its development and Infrastructure.

Here is a list of the core operations of DevOps:

  • Unit testing
  • Packaging
  • Code coverage
  • Code developing
  • Configuration
  • Orchestration
  • Provisioning
  • Deployment
  1. What is the Version Control System (VCS)?

VCS is a software application that helps the software developers to work together and maintain a complete record of their work. These are Common DevOps Interview Questions that are put forth to the freshers and experienced candidates in a DevOps Interview.

  1. Explain a Git Bisect?

The Git Bisect helps us to find the commit that introduces a bug using the binary search. The common syntax for a Git Bisect: Git bisect

  1. Elucidate the major benefits of continuous testing tools?

The major benefits of the continuous testing tools are

  • Policy analysis
  • Risk assessment
  • Requirements traceability
  • Test optimization
  • Advanced analytics
  • Service virtualization
  1. What are anti-patterns in DevOps?

When a pattern is used by others, but not by the organizations and if you continue to follow it blindly and it indicates that you have adopted the anti-patterns.

  1. What is the role of plugins in DevOps?

Plugins are scripts that are run from a command line to check the status of Host or Service.

  1. What is Puppet?

It is a useful project management tool. Puppet helps you to automate administration tasks. These are Basic DevOps Interview Question and Answers which are useful for the candidates who are going to attend the DevOps Interview.

  1. State the use of PTR in DNS?

Pointer record that is also known as (PTR) is used for a reverse DNS lookup.

  1. Give three reasons to use Ansible?

Ansible could help in:

  • Configuration Management
  • Application Deployment
  • Task Automation
  1. Explain Chef?

A chef is the powerful automation platform that transforms infrastructure into code. With this tool, one can use write scripts that are used to automate processes. These are the Basic DevOps Interview Questions for the Experienced and Freshers.

  1. List the prerequisites for the implementation of DevOps?
  • At least one Version Control Software
  • Proper communication among the team members
  • Automated testing
  • Automated deployment
  1. What are handlers in Ansible?

It is just like a regular task inside an Ansible Playbook. But they run only when the task contains a “notify” directive. Generally, the Handlers are triggered if it is called by other tasks. DevOps Training at FITA provides an in-depth knowledge of the DevOps concepts and its Application to the students briefly under the guidance of working professionals.

  1. Why we should choose Puppet?

There is Some Reason puppet to be chosen.

  • Puppet is open source
  • Easy to Learn Programming Language DSL
  • Puppet has good community support
  1. What is the scope of SSH?
  • SSH is the secure shell that provides users with a secure encrypted mechanism for logging into the system and transferring files.
  • For logging out the remote machine and working on command lines.
  • For Securing the encrypted communication between two or more hosts over a secured network.
  1. Mention some of the important NetWork tools.

The prominent network monitoring tools are

  • Splunk
  • Icinga 2
  • Wireshark
  • Nagios
  • OpenNMS

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  1. How would you handle the merge conflicts in git?
  • Create a Pull request
  • Modifying according to the requirement of Developers by sitting with the developer.
  • Transfer the correct file to the branch
  • Merge the current branch with the master branch.
  1. Which are the tools that can be used for Docker Networking

Kubernetes and Docker Swarm tools can be used for Docker Networking. These are the Basic DevOps Interview that is put forth

to a fresher candidate in an interview.

  1. Differentiate between Agile and DevOps.
Basis of DistinctionAgile DevOps
Definition Agile is an iterative approach that focuses on development.DevOps practices both development and operations.
Target areasSoftware development.End to end business solutions.
PurposeHandles complex projects.Handles end-to-end engineering processes.
  Tools        Kanboard, Bugzilla, and JIRA are popular Agile tools.AWS, Chef, and Puppet are some popular DevOps tools.
Feedback sourceSelf-feedbackFeedback is received from customers.
Release cyclesSupports Agile release CyclesShorter release cycles and supports defect detection.
  1. How to modify the commit message in git?

Use the following command and enter the message when prompted.

Git commit –amend

  1. What are the Cons of Ansible?
  • It is an Underdeveloped GUI with limited features.
  • More focus on orchestration than configuration management.
  • SSH communication is slow in scaled environments.
  1. What is Docker Engine?

It is the open-source container that builds and management tool.

  1. What are the ways you can install the Jenkins?

We can install Jenkins in 3 Different Ways

  • Downloading Jenkins archive file
  • Running as a service Java –jar Jenkins.war
  • Deploying the Jenkins.war to the web apps folder in the tomcat. These are General DevOps Interview Questions that are asked to fresher in a DevOps Interview.
  1. What do you mean by Docker Client?

Command-line tool – that is a docker binary and it communicates to the Docker daemon via the Docker API.

  1. Name three important DevOps KPIs

Three most important DevOps KPIs are:

  • Meantime to the failure recovery
  • Deployment frequency
  • Percentage of the failed deployments.
  1. What is CBD’?

The Component-Based Development is a unique way to approach the product development process. By using this method, developers always look for existing well tested, defined, and verified components to compose. Also,  assemble them to a product instead of developing it from the scarp.

  1. What is the Resilience Test?

Test which ensures recovery without data and functionality loss after the failure is called Resiliency tests.

For Python Interview Questions For Freshers

  1. Elucidate Pair Programming concerning DevOps

Pair programming is the engineering practice of Extreme Programming Rules. In the pair Programming method, two programmers work on the same system, design, code, and algorithms. Generally, one programmer act as a  driver and the other acts as an observer to monitor the progress of the project. These roles could be reversed at any time without any prior intimation. These are the Basic DevOps Interview Questions that are asked to a fresher in a DevOps Interview.

  1. How would you access variable names in Ansible?

Using the host vars method we can access and add the variables.

  1. Write the code for accessing variable names in Ansible.

{{ hostvars[inventory_hostname][‘ansible_’ + which_interface][‘ipv4’][‘address’] }}

  1. How do you connect a container to a network when it starts?

By following the below command

docker run -itd –network=multi-host-network busybox.

  1. What is Docker Swarm?

The group of Virtual machines with the Docker Engine could be clustered and maintained as a single system. The resources can also be shared by the containers and Docker Swarm master schedules in any of the machines under the cluster according to the availability of the resource.

  1. How to list the stopped containers?

docker ps -a ( –an all)

  1. What is Facter in Puppet?

The Facter gathers the basic information or facts about Puppet Agent like hardware details, settings, network, OS type, IP address, MAC address, and SSH keys. These facts are later made available in Puppet Master’s Manifests as a variable.

  1. How would you do tagging in git?

We have to follow the below command to create the tags in git

Git tag v0.1

  1. What is NRPE in Nagios?

The abbreviation of NRPE stands for ‘Nagios Remote Plugin Executor’. As the very name suggests, it allows you to execute Nagios plugins remotely on the other Linux or Unix machines. It can help monitor remote machine performance metrics like disk usage and CPU load. NRPE can communicate with a few of the Windows agent addons. Also, we can execute scripts and check metrics on the remote Windows machines as well.

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  1. List the benefits of Automation Testing?

The prime benefits of automation testing are

  • Supports wider test coverage of applications and features
  • Ensures consistency
  • Allows parallel execution
  • Improves efficiency
  • Reusable test scripts
  • Saves money and time
  • Reliable results
  1. Why should I use Nagios?
  • Planning for infrastructure upgrades prior to the old systems fail
  • For responding to issues quickly
  • To solve problems automatically when detected
  •  Coordinate with the responses that are received from the technical team
  • For monitoring the entire business processes and infrastructure. These are the General DevOps Interview Questions that are asked to freshers in a DevOps Interview.
  1. What are the top Git commands?
  • git config
  • git init
  • git clone
  • git add
  • git commit
  • git status
  • git rm
  1. What are the uses of the top Git command?
  • git config – It is used for naming purposes.
  • git init – To begin a repository.
  • git clone – It is used for obtaining the repository from the existing URL.
  • git add – It is used for adding a file in the staging area.
  • git commit – This command generally snapshots or record the file permanently on the version history.
  • git status – It lists all the command that has to be committed.
  • git rm – It is used for deleting the file from the working directory and stages of deletion.
  1. List the benefits of Continuous Integration?

The important benefits of Continuous Integration are

  • Faster development cycles
  • Smarter risk mitigation
  • Stable codes
  • Team Communication
  • Reduced Overhead
  • Flexibility
  • Consistency of Building Process
  1. What do you mean by Nagios Log Server?

It simplifies the process of searching the log data. Nagios Log Server is the right choice to perform tasks like setting up alerts, querying the log data, notifying if potential threats arise, and quickly auditing the system. With Nagios Log Server, you can get all of our log data in one particular location with high availability.

  1. What is a namespace in Kubernetes?

Namespaces are the ways to divide cluster resources between various users in Kubernetes. It is useful when multiple users or teams are using the same cluster that can lead to the potential name collisions. These are Common DevOps Interview Questions and Answers that are asked to a fresher in a DevOps Interview.

  1. Explain about YAML

YAML- Yet Another Mark-Up Language is the way of storing data in the structured text formal like the JSON.

  1. How you will run Jenkins’s job from the command line?

curl -X POST -u YOUR_USER:YOUR_USER_PASSWORD http://YOUR_JENKINS_URL/job/YOUR_JOB/build

  1. What is a Chef Server?

The Chef Server is a central store for your infrastructure’s configuration data.  It stores the necessary data that configures your nodes and provides a search that is a powerful tool that allows you to dynamically drive the node based on the configuration of data.

  1. What is Image Tag?

Image tags are the variants of Docker image . “latest” is the default tag of an image.

  1. What are the Blue and Green Deployment patterns?

Blue/Green is the coloring pattern in one of the hardest challenges that are faced at the time of the automatic deployment process.

Blue/Green coloring pattern is one of the hardest challenges faced at the time of the automatic deployment process. In the  Blue/ Green Deployment approach, we need to make sure two identical production environments. These are the General DevOps Interview Questions that are asked to the freshers in the DevOps Interview.

  1. How to launch a browser using WebDriver?
  • For Firefox:

WebDriver driver = new FirefoxDriver();

  • For Internet Explorer (IE):

WebDriver driver = new InternetExplorerDriver();

  • For Chrome:

WebDriver driver = new ChromeDriver();

  1. What is git fetch?

It will only pull the data from the remote repo but it won’t merge with the repo on your local system.

  1. What is git push?

It is used in updating the changes that are made in the remote repository on the internet.

  1. How would you reset the Last Git Commit?

We can use the “git reset” command could be used to undo the last commit.

  1. What is Chef Workstation?

A Chef Workstation is a host that is used to modify your cookbooks and other configuration data.

  1. What is Git pull?

It is used in downloading the files from the repo and it will merge with the files on your local system.

  1. What is Memcached?

Memcached is a free and open-source and high-performance distributed memory object in the caching system. The primary goal of Memcached is to improve the response time for the data which can be recovered or constructed from other sources or database. It is primarily used to avoid the operation of the SQL database or other sources that frequently fetch data for the concurrent request.

  1. Where can the Memcached be used?
  • Social Networking Profile Caching
  •  Content Aggregation Page Caching/HTML
  •  Ad targeting  Profile tracking/Cookie
  •  Relationship Session caching
  •  E-commerce Session and HTML caching
  •  Location-based services – It is used for  Database query scaling
  •  Gaming and entertainment Session caching.
  1. What are the important features of Memcached?
  • CAS Tokens
  • Callbacks
  • getDelayed
  • Binary protocol
  • Igbinary
  1. How do you update Memcached when the data changes?

When data changes we can update Memcached by

  • Clearing the Cache proactively
  • Resetting the Cache
  1. Elucidate the term ‘Canary Release’.

The Canary release is a pattern that reduces the risk of introducing a new version software on the production environment. This is done by making it available in a limited manner to a subset of the user.

The above set of content is Commonly asked Interview questions to the fresher in an interview. We would also add more Basic DevOps Interview Questions in the coming days. Access our website constantly to be updated with the recent questions that are asked in the interview. Also, get to know more about DevOps training and its career scope from our website.



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