python interview questions and answers

Python is an open-source programming language that is easy to learn. Python is the most preferred programming language among developers and thus has wider job opportunities. The following are the Python Interview Question which has been created specifically for freshers to be familiarized with the questions that are commonly asked in the Python interview. If you are interested in learning the Python language, Python Training at FITA is the right place to learn the course professionally.

  1. What is Python?

Python is a high-level object-oriented programming language that can run on different platforms like Windows, Linux, Unix, and Macintosh. Python is widely used in Data Science, Machine Learning, and Artificial Intelligence domain. Python enables ease of coding to develop applications.

  1. What are the various applications of Python?

Python is used in multiple software domains and the applications are listed below. Various Types of application in Python is the commonly asked Python Interview question.

  • Game development
  • Operating systems
  • Language development
  • Web and Internet Development
  • GUI based desktop applications
  • Scientific and computational applications
  • Image processing and graphic design applications
  • Enterprise and business applications development
  1. List out the advantages of Python?

Interpreted: Python is an interpreted language. It does not require a prior accumulation of code and it executes instructions directly.

Free and open-source: It is an open-source project which is publicly available to use. It can be downloaded free of cost.

Portable: Python programs can run on various platforms without affecting its performance.

Extensible: It is highly flexible and extensible with any module.

Object-oriented: Python permits to implement the Object-Oriented concepts to build an application solution.

Built-in data structure: List, Tuple, and Dictionary are useful integrated data structures that are provided by Python.

  1. What are Python decorators?

A Python decorator is a particular change that we make in Python syntax to alter its functions easily.

  1. What is the difference between list and tuple?

The primary difference between list and tuple is that the list is mutable while tuple is not. Tuple could be hashed, for instance as a key for dictionaries.

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  1. How are the arguments passed by value or by reference?

Everything in Python is an object and all the variables hold references to the objects. The reference values are placed according to the functions and you cannot change the value of the references. If needed you can change the objects if it has mutable features.

  1. What is Dictionary and List comprehensions in Python?

These are the syntax constructions that are used in Python, created to ease the Dictionary or List based on the existing or current iterable.

  1. What are the built-in types that Python provides?

Python provides two built-in types. They are Mutable and Immutable types of built-in types.

  1. What do Mutable built-in types include?
  • List
  • Sets
  • Dictionaries

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  1. What do immutable built-in types include?
  • Strings
  • Tuples
  • Numbers
  1. What is namespace in Python?

In Python, every new name introduced has its place where it lives and can be hooked. It is called a namespace. It is like a box where a variable name is graphed to the object placed. Whenever the variable is searched out in the bar, this box will be searched, to get the related object. Name space in Python is the frequently asked question in Python interview.

  1. What is lambda in Python?

It is a single expression, also an anonymous function predominantly used as an inline function.

  1. Why do lambda forms in python does not have statements?

The lambda form in Python does not have statements since it is used to make a new function object and return them at runtime.

  1. What do you mean by the term pass in Python?

The term Pass meaning, a no-operation Python statement, or in other words, it means a place holder in a compound statement, where there should be a blank space left and nothing has to be filled there.

  1. In Python, What do you mean by iterators?

Iterators are used to iterate a group of elements in Python, containers like a list.

  1. What is a unit test in Python?

A unit testing framework in Python is known as a unit test. It supports the function like sharing of setups, shutdown code for tests, automation testing, aggregation of tests into collections etc.

  1. What is slicing in Python?

A Mechanism to choose a range of items from sequence types like tuple, list, strings, etc. is called slicing.

  1. What are the generators in Python?

The means of implementing iterators are called generators. It is a normal function in Python, except it yields expression in the functions.

  1. What is docstring in Python?

The Python documentation string is called docstring, it is the means of documenting Python functions, modules and classes.

  1. How do you copy an object in Python?

For copying an object in Python, you can try the code copy.copy () or copy.deepcopy() for the generic cases. You cannot copy all the objects but you can copy most of them.

  1. What is a negative index in Python?

Python sequences could be indexed in positive and negative numbers. For instance, the Positive index, 0 is the first index, 1 is the second index and so on. For the Negative index, (-1) is the last index and (-2) is the second last index and so on.

  1. How to convert a number to a string?

To convert a number into a string, we should use the inbuilt function str(). If we need hexadecimal or octal representation, we must apply the inbuilt function hex() or oct(). Converting number to a String is the basic interview question that should be known mandatorily by any fresher before attending the Python interview.

  1. What is the difference between X-range and range?

The X-range mostly returns the X-range objects, whereas the range returns the list and also uses the same memory, in spite of the range size.

  1. What is the module and package in Python?

In Python, the module is a way to structure the program. Every Python program file is a module, which imports other modules like objects and attributes of Python. The folder of the Python program is also known as a package of modules. The package may have modules or subfolders.

  1. Mention the rules for local and global variables in Python?

Local variables: When a variable is assigned to a new value anywhere within the function’s body, it’s deceived to be local variables.

Global variables: Variables that are referenced only inside a function are global variables.

  1. How to share global variables across modules?

We can share global variables across modules within a single program and also we can create a special module. It can be done by Importing the config module in all the modules of your application. The module will now be available as a global variable across the modules.

  1. Explain in short, How to make a Python Script executable on Unix?

For making a Python Script executable on Unix, we should do two things,

Script file’s mode should be executable.

The first line of the code should start with # (bin/ #!/local/usr/python)

  1. Explain how to delete a file in Python?

We can delete a Python file by using a command like os.unlink(filename) or os. remove filename.

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  1. How can you generate random numbers in Python?

We can generate random numbers in Python, we need to import command as follows

random.random()

import random

This restore as a random floating-point number within the range [0,1).

  1. How will you access a module that is written in Python from C?

To access a module written in Python from C follow the below method,

Module = =PyImport_ImportModule(“<modulename>”);

  1. Mention the use of // operator in Python?

This is a Floor Division operator, that is used for dividing two operands with a result as quotient displaying only digits before the decimal point. For example, 10//5 = 2 and 10.0//5.0 = 2.0

  1. Mention any five benefits of using Python?

Python encompasses a huge standard library for most of the Internet platforms like HTML, Email, etc.

Python software does not require explicit memory management since the interpreter itself allocates the memory to the new variables and also free them automatically.

Readability is easy due to the use of frequent square brackets.

It is a simple programming language and it is easier for beginners.

Since it has built-in data types, Python saves programming time and effort from declaring the variables. Uses of Python is one of the most frequently asked Python Interview Questions for freshers.

  1. Explain the use of the split function in Python?

The Split function is used in Python for breaking a string to a shorter one by using a defined separator. Split Functions gives the complete list of words that are present in the string.

  1. What is Flask and what are its benefits?

Flask is one of the parts of the micro-framework. It means it will have little or no dependencies on external libraries. Flask makes the work of the framework lighter. While there is a slight dependency to update and fewer security bugs.

  1. What is Flask? the basic difference between Django, Pyramid, and Flask?

Flask is the “Microframework” mostly used in building a small application with simpler requirements. In a Flask, mostly you have to use external libraries for building applications. Flask is ready to use.

  1. What is a Pyramid?

A pyramid is built for larger applications. It facilitates flexibility and lets the developer make use of the right tools for their project. The developer can select the database, templating style, URL structure, and more. A Pyramid is a heavy configuration program.

  1. What is Django?

Django can also be used for larger applications, like Pyramid. Django includes an ORM. Get access to Common Java Interview Questions that are asked in a Fresher Interview on clicking the following link.

  1. What is Flask-WTF, also its features?

Flask-WTF provides simple integration with the WTForms. Features of Flask WTF includes

Integration with wtforms

Secured form with CSRF token

Supports Global CSRF protection

Globalization integration

Enables Recaptcha supporting

File upload that works with the Flask Uploads.

  1. Mention the common way for the Flask script to work?

The two common ways for the Flask Script to work is as follows

First, it should be the import path for your application or should it be a path to Python file.

  1. How you can access sessions in Flask?

A session allows you to remember information from one request to the other. In the Flask, it uses a signed cookie so that the user can look at the session and its contents, if needed modify them. The user is permitted to modify the session if only it has the secret key code Flask.secret_key.

  1. What is PEP 8?

PEP 8 is the coding convention, which is a set of recommendations, on how to write your Python code and make it more readable.

  1. What is pickling and unpickling?

The Pickle module accepts any Python object. It also converts that into a string representation and also dumps them into a file by using the dump function, it is called pickling. The method of retrieving original Python objects from the previously-stored string representation is called unpickling.

  1. How Python is interpreted?

Python is an interpreted language and it runs directly from the source code. Python converts all the source code that is written by the developer to an intermediate language, that is again translated into machine language which has to be executed.

  1. How memory is managed in Python?

Python memory is handled by Python private heap space. All Python objects and data structures will be located in a private heap. The programmer can not have access to this private heap and the interpreter manages the Python private heap.

The allocation of Python heap space for the Python objects is done by the Python memory manager. The core API of Python grants access to some tools for the programmers to code.

Python has an inbuilt garbage collector, that recycles all the unused memory and frees the memory and makes it available for the heap space.

  1. Which are the tools that help to find bugs or perform the static analysis?

PyChecker is a static analysis tool that detects bugs in the Python source code. It also warns about the complexity and style of the bug. Pylint is also another tool that is used to verify whether the module meets the coding standard.

  1. What is meant by Python literals?

Literals are also known as data that is given in a variable or constant. Python supports the following literals: String Literals, Numeric literals and Boolean Literals.

  1. What is String Literals

String literals are constructed by enclosing the text in the single or double-quotes. For instance, String literals are string values.

Example: “Jack”, ‘12345’.

  1. What are Numeric Literals?

Python has three types of numeric literals they are Integer, float, and complex. Examples are listed below.

# Integer literal

a = 20

#Float Literal

b = 12.8

#Complex Literal

x = 3.14v

  1. What are Boolean Literals?

Boolean literals are used to indicate boolean values. It contains either True or False.

# Boolean literal

isboolean = True

  1. What are Python Functions?

A function is an area of the program or a block of code which can be written once and can be executed anytime required in the program. A function is a block of self-contained statements that have a parameter list, valid name, and body. Python provides numerous built-in functions to complete tasks and also permits the users to create new functions as well.

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There are two types of functions:

Built-In Functions: count(),copy(), and len() are some of the built-in functions.

User-defined Functions: Functions that are defined by a user termed as user-defined functions.

Example: The general syntax of the user-defined function is given below.

def function_name (parameters list):

#— statements—

return a_value

  1. What does zip() function in Python?

The Python zip() function is used in transforming multiple lists, like list1, list2, list3, and many others into a single list of tuples. This method takes an iterable and returns a tuple of the iterable. When we don’t pass an iterable, it returns as an empty iterator. See this example:

list1 = [‘A’,’B’,’C’] and list2 = [20,50,60].

zip(list1, list2) # results in a list of tuples say [(‘A’,20),(‘B’,50),(‘C’,60)]

Note: In case the given lists are of various lengths, the zip stops generating tuples after the first list ends.

  1. How to overload the constructors or methods in Python?

Python’s constructor: _init__ () is the first method of a class. While trying to initiate an object __init__() is immediately invoked by Python to initialize the members of an object. We can’t overload the constructors or methods in Python. It displays an error if we try to overload.

class student:

def __init__(self,name):

self.name = name

def __init__(self, name, email):

self.name = name

self.email = email

# This line will generate an error

#st = student(“tom”)

# This line will call the second constructor

st = student(“tom”, “tom@gmail.com”)

print(st.name)

Output:

tom

  1. What is the difference between remove() function and del statement?

The del statement is primarily used to remove the key, list, or a dictionary. We should pass an index that we want to delete. Del is the fastest way to remove any elements from the list.

The remove() method is mostly used to remove elements from the list. It identifies the element before deleting which makes it slower than del. Del and remove both are used in removing element but the del has a performance edge over removed. Given below is the example of remove and del.

data = [60,900,12,300,90,10]

print(data)

# Deleting 4th index element

del data[4]

print(data)

data = [60,900,12,300,90,10]

# Removing element by passing element

data.remove(12)

print(data)

Output:

[60, 900, 12, 300, 90, 10]

[60, 900, 12, 300, 10]

[60, 900, 300, 90, 10]

  1. What is the swap case() function in Python?

It is the string’s function that converts all uppercase characters into lowercase and vice versa. It is used in altering the existing case of the string. These are the general Python related questions that are put forth to the candidates in the Python Interview Question for freshers.

  1. Do Swap cases () creates a string in Python?

The Swap case method creates a copy of the string which contains all the characters in the swap case. When the string is in lowercase, it creates a small case string and vice versa. It immediately ignores all the non-alphabetic characters.

  1. How to remove the whitespaces from a string in Python?

To remove the whitespaces and trailing spaces from the string, Python provides strip([str]) built-in function. This function returns a copy of the string after removing whitespaces if present. Otherwise, it returns to the original string.

  1. How to remove the leading whitespaces from a string in Python?

For removing the leading characters from a string, we should use lstrip() function. Python string function takes an optional chart type parameter. When a parameter is provided, it removes the character. If not, it removes all the leading spaces from the string.

  1. Why do we use the join () function in Python?

We use the join () function method to concatenate a string with the iterable object. It comes back to a new string that is the concatenation of the strings in iterable. This throws an exception TypeError if the iterable contains any non-string values.

  1. How to use the break statement?

The break statement is used to terminate the execution of the current loop. Break statements always break the execution that is currently used and transfer the control to outside the current block.

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  1. What are the general operators in Python?

An operator in specific is a symbol that is used on some values and produces output as a result. The operators work on operands. The operands may be of numeric literals or variables. The three major Python operators are listed below.

  • Unary
  • Binary
  • Ternary.
  1. What do you mean by Unary operator Python?

The operators which require a single operand is known as Unary operator.

  1. What do you mean by Binary operator in Python?

An operator that requires two operands is known as Binary operator.

  1. What is the Ternary operator?

The operator that requires three operands is known as Ternary operator.

  1. How to create the Unicode string in Python?

In the Python 3 version, the old Unicode type has been replaced by “str” type, and the string is considered as the Unicode by default. To make a string in Unicode, we can use art.title.encode(“utf-8”) function.

  1. What are the rich set operators of Python?
  • Arithmetic OperatorsRelational Operators
  • Assignment Operators
  • Logical Operators
  • Membership Operators
  • Identity Operators
  • Bitwise Operators
  1. List out Some of the PDB Commands For Debugging the Python program

Add breakpoint (b)

Resume execution (c)

Step by step debugging (s)

Move to the next line (n)

List source code (l)

Print (p)

  1. What command do you use to Debug A Python Program?

$ python -m pdb python-script.py

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  1. What are the ways to create an Empty NumPy array in Python?

We can create it in two different ways.

First method:

import numpy

numpy.array([])

Second method:

# Make an empty NumPy array

numpy.empty(shape=(0,0))

  1. Give the Syntax for Generator expression in Python?

( expression(var) for var in iterable )

  1. Write a conditional expression in Python?

>>> no_of_days = 366

>>> is_leap_year = “Yes” if no_of_days == 366 else “No”

>>> print(is_leap_year)

Yes

  1. What are the databases that are supported by Python?

MongoDB (Unstructured) and MySQL (Structured) are the predominant databases that are supported in Python.

  1. What is the best way to parse strings and find patterns in Python?

Python has built-in support to parse strings using the Regular expression module.

  1. What is the beginning point of Python code execution?

The Python is an interpreter, it starts reading the code from the source file and starts executing them. This question is asked basically to test your knowledge in Python coding in the Python Interview Questions for freshers.

  1. Mention some of the important modules that are available in Python.
  • Networking
  • Mathematics
  • Cryptographic services
  • Internet data handling
  • Multi-threading

These are prominent modules. Several other modules are available in the Python developer community.

  1. Which module(s) of the Python can be used in measuring the performance activities of your application code?

Time module can be used predominantly to calculate the time at various stages of your application. To use the Logging module to log data to a file system in any preferred format.

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  1. How to launch sub-processes within the main process of a Python application?

Python has a built-in module known as sub-process. To import this module and either using the run () or Popen() function calls to launch a sub-process and to get control of its return code.

  1. Does the similar Python code work on different platforms without any changes?

Yes. As far as you have the Python environment on your target platform (Windows, Linux, and Mac), you could run the same code.

  1. How would you create a GUI based application in the Python for client-side functionality?

To create a Python with the standard library Tkinter could be used to create GUI based applications. Tkinter library supports the functions of various widgets that can create and handle events that are widget specific.

  1. What is the function of the ‘#’ symbol do in Python?

‘#’ is commonly used to comment out everything that comes after on the line.

  1. What is the function of stringVar?strip() does?

This function is used in removing the string methods that remove the leading or trailing white space. Python Course in Hyderabad at FITA provides the right blend of theoretical and practical knowledge to the students.

  1. Write the code to display the current time.

current time= time.localtime(time.time())

print (“Current time is”, current-time)

  1. What will be the output of print str[4: ] if str = ‘ Python Language’?

on Language

  1. Write the command code to get all keys from the dictionary.

print dict.keys()

  1. Write the command to convert a string into an int in python.

int(x [,base])

  1. What do you mean by the term ‘Monkey Patching’ refers to the Python?

Monkey Patching means the modification of a module at run-time.

  1. What is the meaning of ‘suites’ in Python?

A group of individual statements, that makes a logical block of code is called suites.

For Example:

If expression

Suite

Else

Suite

  1. What is the range () in Python? List out an example to explain it.

It is the function to iterate over a sequence of numbers.

For Example:

for var in list(range (50))

Print (var)

  1. What is the difference between abs () and fabs () in Python?

abs () is a built-in function that works with integer, complex and float numbers also.

fabs () is defined in the math module which doesn’t work with complex numbers.

  1. Write the output for the following code:

Code:

str = “Python is a programming language”

print (str.isalnum())

str = “This is Interview Question17”

print (str.isalnum())

Answer: False

True

  1. What is the use of Assertion statements in Python?

The Assertions statement is primarily used to evaluate the expression attached. In case the expression is false, then Python raised Assertion Error Exception.

  1. List the difference between ‘match’ and ‘search’ in Python? 

Match checks for the match at the beginning of the strings, whereas search checks anywhere in the strings.

  1. Distinguish between a deep copy and shallow copy?

Shallow copy is used when the new instance type gets created and it keeps values copied. Whereas deep copy stores values that are already copied.

A shallow copy is comparatively fast in program execution whereas deep copy makes it slow.

  1. Which statement is used in Python if the statement is required syntactically but no action is required for the program?

Pass statement

Example:

If(a>90)

print(“Python”)

else

Pass

  1. What are *args and *kwargs in Python?

They are used to pass the variable number of arguments to the function. *args is primarily used to pass non-keyworded, variable-length argument list. Whereas *kwargs is used to pass keyworded, variable-length argument lists.

  1. What is a list?

It is a collection of items of different data types that can be changed at the run time.

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  1. What is a tuple?

It is a collection of items of different data types that can not be changed. It has only read-only access to the collection. Tuple can be used in case you want to secure the data collection and it does not need any modifications.

  1. What is Set?

It is a collection of an item that has a similar data type.

  1. What is a Dictionary?

It is a collection of items that has key-value pairs.

  1. Do Python allows you to program in a Structured Style?

Yes, it allows. It permits to code as a structured as-well-as Object-Oriented Style. This is the basic Python Interview Question for experienced to test their knowledge in Python.

  1. List out the differences between the .py and .pyc files in Python?

.py files are known as Python source files. .pyc files are the compiled bytecode files. It is generated by the Python compiler.

  1. What are the types of the namespace that are present in Python?

Python has three types of namespace in it. They are:

  • Local namespace
  • Global namespace
  • Built-in namespace.

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