R Programming Training In Chennai

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  • Real-Time Experts as Trainers
  • LIVE Project
  • Certification
  • Affordable Fees
  • Flexibility
  • Placement Support

The R Programming Training in Chennai at FITA Academy enables you to have a comprehensive understanding of the Fundamentals of the R Programming Language and RStudio under the training of Expertise. By the end of the R Programming Training Course, you will become familiar with the key concepts such as Data Analysis Techniques, Data Mining, Data Manipulation, Array calculations, Storage Facility, Data Handlings, Loops, Data Visualization using Graphical Representation, and Statistical Analysis using R in real-time practices.

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FITA Academy



FITA Academy


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Expert Trainers

Course Highlights and Why R Programming Training In Chennai at FITA Academy?

R Programming Training In Chennai Expertly curated R Programming Course modules to meet the industry requirements set in the Data Science arena globally.
R Programming Training In Chennai Courseware that is tailored by R Programming Experts to get you acquainted with R Data Structures, R Variables & Operators, R Functions, R Packages, and R Strings.
R Programming Training In Chennai Skilled and Hand-picked R Trainers at FITA Academy with 10+ years of Experience in R Programming.
R Programming Training In Chennai Exhaustive R Programming Training in Chennai at FITA Academy to enrich and equip the participants with Data Analysis, Statistical Analysis, and Data Manipulation techniques using the R Programming language.
R Programming Training In Chennai Engaging and Interactive Expert-led R Programming Classes in Chennai at FITA Academy.
R Programming Training In Chennai Regular Summing-up of the previous R Programming Classes are given to boost the memory of the learning participants.
R Programming Training In Chennai R Programming Concepts are taught in Enhanced Classroom with Experiential Method of learning techniques at FITA Academy.
R Programming Training In Chennai Professional R Programming Training at a cost-efficient range with Course accomplishment certification on completing the R Programming Training.
R Programming Training In Chennai Customized R Programming Batch Timings - Weekday, Fast Track, and Weekend R Programming Training in Chennai at FITA Academy.
R Programming Training In Chennai FITA Training Academy Supports the Students with 100% of Placement Assistance and Guidance for all the Participants who have undergone the R Programming Training successfully.
R Programming Training In Chennai FITA Training Academy has a Placement Association with 1500+ Corporate Business Enterprises.
R Programming Training In Chennai FITA Training Academy has an Active Job Portal that helps the students to pursue their careers in the desired path.

Upcoming Batches

  • 17-06-2024
  • Weekdays
  • Monday (Monday - Friday)
  • 20-06-2024
  • Weekdays
  • Thursday (Monday - Friday)
  • 22-06-2024
  • Weekend
  • Saturday (Saturday - Sunday)
  • 29-06-2024
  • Weekend
  • Saturday (Saturday - Sunday)
R Programming Training In Chennai Batches

Classroom Training

  • Get trained by Industry Experts via Classroom Training at any of the FITA Academy branches near you
  • Why Wait? Jump Start your Career by taking the R Programming Training in Chennai!

Instructor-Led Live Online Training

  • Take-up Instructor-led Live Online Training. Get the Recorded Videos of each session.
  • Travelling is a Constraint? Jump Start your Career by taking the R Programming Online Course!


Introduction to R Programming

  • What is R?
  • History and Features of R
  • Introduction to R Studio
  • Installing R and Environment Setup
  • Command Prompt
  • Understanding R programming Syntax
  • Understanding R Script Files

R Programming Basics

  • Data types in R
  • Creating and Managing Variables
  • Understanding Operators
  • Assignment Operators
  • Arithmetic Operators
  • Relational and Logical Operators
  • Other Operators
  • Understanding and using Decision Making Statements
  • The IF Statement
  • The IF…ELSE statement
  • Switch Statement

Understanding Loops and Loop Control

  • Repeat Loop
  • While Loop
  • For Loop
  • Controlling Loops with Break and Next Statements

More on Data Types

  • Understanding the Vector Data type
  • Introduction to Vector Data type
  • Types of Vectors
  • Creating Vectors and Vectors with Multiple Elements
  • Accessing Vector Elements
  • Understanding Arrays in R
  • Introduction to Arrays in R
  • Creating Arrays
  • Naming the Array Rows and Columns
  • Accessing and manipulating Array Elements

Understanding the Matrices in R

  • Introduction to Matrices in R
  • Creating Matrices
  • Accessing Elements of Matrices
  • Performing various computations using Matrices

Understanding the List in R

  • Understanding and Creating List
  • Naming the Elements of a List
  • Accessing the List Elements
  • Merging different Lists
  • Manipulating the List Elements
  • Converting Lists to Vectors

Understanding and Working with Factors

  • Creating Factors
  • Data frame and Factors
  • Generating Factor Levels
  • Changing the Order of Levels

Understanding Data Frames

  • Creating Data Frames
  • Matrix Vs Data Frames
  • Subsetting data from a Data Frame
  • Manipulating Data from a Data Frame
  • Joining Columns and Rows in a Data Frame
  • Merging Data Frames
  • Converting Data Types using Various Functions
  • Checking the Data Type using Various Functions

Functions in R

  • Understanding Functions in R
  • Definition of a Function and its Components
  • <Understanding Built-in Functions
  • Character/String Functions
  • Statistical and Numerical functions
  • Time and Date Functions
  • Understanding User Defined Functions (UDF)
  • Creating a User Defined Function
  • Calling a Function
  • Understanding Lazy Evaluation of Functions

Working with External Data

  • Understanding External Data
  • Understanding R Data Interfaces
  • Working with Text Files
  • Working with CSV Files
  • Understanding Verify and Load for Excel Files
  • Using written() and ReadBin() to manipulate Binary Files
  • Understanding the RMySQL Package to Connect and Manage MySQL Databases

Data Visualization with R

  • What is Data Visualization
  • Understanding R Libraries for Charts and Graphs
  • Using Charts and Graphs for Data Visualizations
  • Exploring Various Chart and Graph Types
  • Pie Charts and Bar Charts
  • Box Plots and Scatter Plots
  • Histograms and Line Graphs

Exploring Statistical Computations using R

  • Understanding the Basics of Statistical Analysis
  • Uses and Advantages of Statistical Analysis
  • Understanding and using Mean, Median, and Mode
  • Understanding and using Linear, Multiple and Logistic Regressions ∙ Generating Normal and Binomial Distributions
  • Understanding Inferential Statistics
  • Understanding Descriptive Statistics and Measure of Central Tendency

Packages in R

  • Understanding Packages
  • Installing and Loading Packages
  • Managing Packages

Hands-on Project

Trainer Profile

  • R Programming Mentors at FITA Academy trains the Students with a proper blend of Practical and Theoretical concepts of the R Programming Language.
  • R Programming Tutors at FITA Academy upsurges the job opportunities of the students by training them exhaustively on the Industry- oriented skills.
  • R Programming Instructors at FITA Academy are Certified R Programming Experts from the Data Science field.
  • R Programming Trainers at FITA Academy are Real-time R Programmers who possess above 10+ years of experience in using the R Language.
  • R Programming Instructors at FITA Academy broadens the coding skillsets of the participants by training extensively on the current industry practices.
  • R Programming Mentors at FITA Academy provide the required Personalized Attention for all the participants and provide hands-on training and application of the R Programming Language.
  • R Programming Trainers at FITA Academy Guides the Students in Building their Portfolios Professionally.
  • R Programming Instructors at FITA Academy enhance the competence level of the students by training them widely on the Interview practices and Group discussions with numerous mock practices and interview tips.

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R Programming Training In Chennai Details

Features of R Programming Training In Chennai at FITA Academy

Real-Time Experts as Trainers

At FITA Academy, You will Learn from the Experts from industry who are Passionate in sharing their Knowledge with Learners. Get Personally Mentored by the Experts.

LIVE Project

Get an Opportunity to work in Real-time Projects that will give you a Deep Experience. Showcase your Project Experience & Increase your chance of getting Hired!


Get Certified by FITA Academy. Also, get Equipped to Clear Global Certifications. 72% FITA Academy Students appear for Global Certifications and 100% of them Clear it.

Affordable Fees

At FITA Academy, Course Fee is not only Affordable, but you have the option to pay it in Installments. Quality Training at an Affordable Price is our Motto.


At FITA Academy, you get Ultimate Flexibility. Classroom or Online Training? Early morning or Late evenings? Weekdays or Weekends? Regular Pace or Fast Track? - Pick whatever suits you the Best.

Placement Support

Tie-up & MOU with more than 1500+ Small & Medium Companies to Support you with Opportunities to Kick-Start & Step-up your Career.

Why Learn R Programming Training In Chennai at FITA Academy?

Live Capstone Projects

Real time Industry Experts as Trainers

Placement Support till you get your Dream Job offer!

Free Interview Clearing Workshops

Free Resume Preparation & Aptitude Workshops

R Programming Training In Chennai Certification

R Programming Certification Training in Chennai

R Programming Course Certification is a valid professional credential that exhibits that the learning participants have gained an in-depth knowledge of the R Programming Language and its application in the Data Science field. With a Real-life R Programming Language project experience provided at the end of the R course, this certification acts as a crux in authenticating the skills that should be obtained by the professional R Programmer. Affixing this accomplishment with your CV at the time of the Interview Process aids in Boosting your Profile immensely over your peers and enables you to access job opportunities at a broader range. 

R Programming Certification Course in Chennai at FITA Training Academy imparts the participants with the in-demand skill sets that are required for a  Professional R Programmer under the training of Real-time Experts. R Programming Training in Chennai at FITA Academy Training Academy is rendered by professionals who have 10+ years of Work Experience in the Data Science field. The R Programmer Tutors at FITA Training Academy trains you extensively to code efficiently and have an in-depth understanding of the Commands and Syntax used in R Language.

Have Queries? Talk to our Career Counselor for more Guidance on picking the
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Placement Session & Job Opportunities after completing R Programming Training In Chennai

R Programming Training In Chennai with Placement Support

There is an ample amount of scope for career growth in choosing the R Programming language. Since the Language is not only used in the IT industry but it also extends its services to various other domains to name a  few  Banking, Academia, Health Organizations, Government Departments, Financial Sectors, and Manufacturing sectors. Apart from these sectors, it is also stated that R  Developers are highly demanded in the Start-ups companies as well. 

This is because R is a highly dynamic, flexible, and platform-independent language that can be applied to any operating systems namely Mac, Linux, Windows, or Unix. As it can be operated on any OS it is estimated that there are more than 2 million programmers who use the R Programming language. Furthermore, it is anticipated that the R Programming language has all the capabilities to boom at an exponential range along with Python and Hadoop in the Data Science and  Business Intelligence domain.

The Global big giant companies that use the R Programming Languages are Google, IBM, Standard Chartered Bank, American Express, HP, Oracle, Deloitte, Infosys, Bank of America, Ford, Capgemini, Paytm, JP Morgan, Airbnb, HCL, Microsoft, TCS, Snapdeal, HSBC, Cognizant, Genpact, Tech Crunch, and Mckinsey. And the general job profiles that are offered in these companies who have the skillsets of R Programming are R Programmer, Data Scientist, Data Architect, Data Analysts, Geo Statistician, Database Administrator, Data Visualization Analysts, and Quantitative Analysts with R.

The median remittance offered for an entry-level R Programmer is Rs. 3,20,000 to Rs. 4,00,000 yearly in India. Globally, an R Programmer is paid around $77,724 per annum based on the reports collected from various job portal sites. Though R presently is considered as a niche technology, in the upcoming days, there is going to be manifold demand for the R Programmers in the market owing to the mammoth of data that are collected daily, and opting for R Programming as your career will be a far wiser and futuristic choice. R Programming Training in Chennai at FITA Academy upsurges your career opportunities by training you immensely on the practices and techniques that are prevalent in the market under the mentorship of Expert R Programmers. The R Programmers Mentors at FITA Academy hone in the required professional skills and technical competence that needed to ace an R Programmer job.

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Student's Success Story of R Programming Training In Chennai


Angel Martin

I did my R Programming Course @ FITA Academy. It was an extremely great experience at FITA Academy. The R Programming Coursewares was an updated one and it consisted of all the things that an R Programmer should be aware of. Over here I would like to specially mention the Support Team who constantly meet with all needs. Nice work FITA Academy! Thank you.


Mahesh S

The R Programming Training in Chennai at FITA Academy was Excellent. My R Programming Trainer was truly a Pro in R Programming. He almost thought everything in detail. Also, made sure that the complete learning phase was engaging and understanding. He conducted sufficient Assessment sessions to check out our progress. I recommend the FITA Academy Institute to all my friends.


Krishna D

I completed my R Programming Training @ FITA Academy. The Trainer clearly thought about the usage and application of R in Data Analysis and Data manipulation with practical examples. Also, he was so patient enough to clear all our doubts. I am happy with the training provided at FITA Academy. I have gained a very good knowledge of the R Programming language. I highly recommend this program for the Freshers. Thanks To my R Programming Trainer and FITA Academy!


Sujatha Harichandran

My overall experience at FITA Academy R Programming Course was good and smooth. Though I already knew about the R Programming language this Program helped me to enhance my knowledge and know about the new updates and changes that have recently taken place in the recent past. Good Training Experience and I refer FITA Academy to all who seek to learn about R Programming language.

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R Programming Training In Chennai Reviews

Frequently Asked Question (FAQ) about R Programming Training In Chennai

  • The R Programming Course in Chennai at FITA Academy is developed and conducted by Professionals Statisticians who hold 10+ years of experience in the Data Analytics and Data Science platform. 
  • FITA Academy is the only Training Academy in Chennai that trains the Students with the Correct Blend of Practical and Theoretical concepts of the R Programming language. 
  • Wider coverage of R Course with 60+ hours of R Training in Chennai at FITA Academy.
  • 75,000+ students trust FITA Academy.
  • Interview Tips 
  • Corporate Training in Chennai with Certification
  • The R Programming Course fee is devised in a manner to suit the affordability of the Students and Working Professionals
  • The R Programming Course Timing is devised in a way to suit the Flexibility of the Students and Working Professionals
  • Support in Building the Resume
  • Case Studies and Real-time project experience on how to use the R programming language. 
  • FITA Academy has Placement Tie-ups with above 1500+ Corporate Enterprises and these companies have regular job recruitment for the positions - R Programmer and R Developer. 
  • FITA Academy has designated a Dedicated Placement Advisor to support students in the Placement assistance.
  • The Placement Portal caters to the students with different Group Discussions and Mock Interview training for the Students to face the interview boldly. 
  • You can enroll for the R Programming Course in Chennai at FITA Academy by contacting our Support Number 93450 45466.
  • Also, you can directly walk into any of our Branch offices in Chennai - Anna Nagar, OMR, Tambaram, Velachery, and T Nagar for the registration of the R Programming Course. 
  • FITA Academy was set up in the year 2012 by a group of IT veterans to provide world-class IT Training. We have been actively present in the training field for close to a decade now.
  • We have trained more than 75,000+ students till now, and it includes the headcount of numerous working professionals as well.
  • We provide maximum individual attention to all the students. The R Programming Training batch size is optimized for 5 - 6 members per batch. The R Programming Course batch size has been customized for individual focus and to clear the doubts of the students in complex topics clearly with tutors. 
  • FITA Academy provides the needed practical training to all the students with many Industry case studies and real-time projects

The R Programming Trainers at FITA Academy are Certified Industrial Experts who hold 10+ years of Work Experience as Statistician in the Data Science field. The R Programming Training Faculty at FITA Academy are Real-life R Programming Professionals and they train the students efficiently with hands-on learning experiences.

We accept various Payments Options at FITA Academy - Cash, Net Transfer, Card, Bank transfer, and G Pay.

FITA Academy provides the best R Training in Chennai with the help of MNC professionals. Spend your valuable time visiting our branches in Chennai. FITA Academy is located in three main areas of Chennai, Velachery, T Nagar, Tambaram, Anna Nagar, and OMR. People also search for

  • R Training in Velachery
  • R Training in Tambaram
  • R Training in Anna Nagar
  • R Training in T Nagar
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R Programming Training In Chennai

R Programming language is the most popular language in the arena of Data Science. This language is immensely used for analyzing the Data be it Semi -structures, Structured, or Unstructured. The R Programming Language is specifically used for importing and cleansing Data in the open-source environment. Moreover, the R Programming language is used for the Quantitative Analysts for making the key decision from the given data. Since R is an interpreted language you can easily run the codes without any compilers and this makes the development of the codes simpler and easier.

Prerequisites & Eligibility Criteria for the R Programming Language Training in Chennai at FITA

Prerequisites: For the R Programming Training in Chennai at FITA Academy we don’t ask for any requisites to be fulfilled to pursue the R Programming Training. However, having a solid understanding of the Statistics concepts will be of additional advantage for the learners to understand the R Programming language at ease.

Eligibility Criteria: The R Programming Training can be pursued by any Fresh graduates who seek to begin their career in the Data Science arena. Also, this course is preferable for professionals such as

  • Data Scientists
  • Data Analysts
  • Big Data Professionals
  • Software Developers – Python
  • Reporting Professionals
  • Statistical Programmers
  • Business Analysts
  • Project Manager

The R Programming Training in Chennai at FITA Academy helps to comprehend the R Programming language intensively under the training of the Real-time Statistician and R Programmers who are carefully hand-picked from the industry. The R Programmer Trainers at FITA Academy supports the students to upgrade their knowledge by training with hands-on exercises of the R programming concepts with certification.

What are the key takeaways from the R Programming Training in Chennai at FITA Academy?

  • A wider understanding of the basics of the R Programming Language and its Core Principles
  • Become Familiar with R Packages & R Studio
  • Demonstrable knowledge of the various types of Data that are available in R programming language
  • A solid understanding of the various Data Structures that are found in the R Programming Language
  • Know-how to use the Control Statements
  • Able to write the User-defined R Functions
  • Ability to Manipulate and Create the Data in R
  • Capable of Collecting detailed information using the R Profiler
  • Able to use the Debugging tools and the R Loop Functions efficiently
  • Know-how to do the merge operation in R Programming language

R Analytics course at FITA Academy is aimed at mastering you in the R programming language. As we, all know programming is one of the fundamentals required for developing any software or application. Moreover, its expansion is tremendous in the past few decades due to the instant changes in the IT sector. Thus, the requirement for Software developers keeps on increasing amidst the organization.

Now, the toughest part is to get to know which programming language to learn for getting into a secured career. Currently, R Programming Language is widely deployed in Machine Learning and Data Analytics due to its magnificent framework along with built-in libraries to develop effective algorithms. Thus, enroll yourself in R Programming Training in Chennai for detailed knowledge in this.

On the whole, every programming language has its specialty and competency, and the choice is completely dependent on the project you are working on. However, to be more precise, it is indeed necessary to select the correct language to enter the industry. As per the research conducted over the top languages of 2019, R Programming is the most chosen one as its usage is evident in almost all the sectors namely, banks, retail companies, financial firms along with the IT sector.

R Interview Questions

R can be defined clearly with the process in which it is applied to arrive at the results. The process includes the program for the analysis of data, transforms the data with the help of the libraries, discovers result with the sequential analysis and by refining the hypothesis, model or the structure is designed with the tools in the R, and communicate with the codes, graphs, and outputs to get the results. HTML, PDF/Latex, and word are used as documents, and HTML and PDF beamer are used for the presentation. Join the R Training in Chennai and hone technical skills.

R programming has a wide and monotonous learning curve as it is used in many types of industries. Let us see the comprehensive view of the interview question and answer to help the students to through in the interview. Some interviews have an aptitude round and some interview goes directly with the technical round. Some job profiles demand interaction and coordination among the employees or clients. So, when preparing for the interview the English knowledge and the subject knowledge have to be fine-tuned with constant reading and practice. R Programming Training in Chennai is designed from scratch to make the students clear about all the basic topics and advanced topics.

What are the similarities between R programming and Python?

R Programming language has a model building which is similar to the Python programming language, Python programming language has a similar model building which is similar to R. Python is easier than R. Model interpretability is good in R programming whereas it is not good in python. Data visualizations libraries and tools are good in R and it is not good in python programming. Production is good in python whereas production is not as good as in R programming.

What is data import in the R language?

In the console, the user will type the Rcmdr which is the command of the R commander GUI. The data can be imported in three ways, enter the name of the data set in the dialog box then select the dataset in the dialogue box, the editor of the R commander is used to enter the data and it is used in case of large data, plain text file (ASCII) is used to import the data from the URL, from the statistical package or the clipboard.

What are the ways to communicate the outputs of the data analysis in R language?

To do the research Knitr single document is used, it combines the data, code, and analysis, it helps to check the findings and turn them into conversations. To redo the experiments with the help of inserting the new data values and applying the real-time problems to the data is done with reproducible research. R Programming Training is conducted with industry experts and a holistic environment to enhance the learning attitude of the students.

List out the difference between library() and require() functions in R language?

If the package is not loaded then the library () function gives an error message and whether it is already loaded or not it loads the packages. Whenever a particular package is not found then the require () function shows a warning message. It checks the previous loads and loads the function if it is not loaded. Both types of function will not reload a package which is already loaded and this is designed to avoid errors.

Describe the R programming?

R programming is used for machine learning and deployment purposes. To develop the statistical software and conduct data analysis R programming is used in the software industry. R Training inChennai is conducted with practicality and real-time scenarios which make the subject interesting.

Explain the way of writing R commands?

At the starting # is used in the line of code and #division commands are used in the R programming.

Explain t-tests () in R?

T-tests is the function that is used to determine if two groups are equal or not.

List out some of the disadvantages of R programming?

Some of the disadvantages of R programming are standard GUI is missing in R programming, R programming is not suitable for big data, the spreadsheet view is not available for analysis. RTraining in Chennai is the best training for the students.

What is the use of With () and By () function in R?

with() function applies an expression to a dataset.

Explain the usage of with () and by () function in R?

In R programming a function is used for an expression to a data set and By () function is a function applied to each level of factors.

How the missing values are used in the R programming?

The missing values are used in the R programming with NA and it is written in the capital letters.

Describe the benefits of a subset () and sample () function in R programming?

The sample function is used for creating a random sample size and with the sample size, the data set is created. To select the variables and observations subset () is used in the R programming.

Describe transpose?

The t() function exercises the transpose function and it is for the reshaping of the data which is used for the analysis.

List out the advantages of R programming?

R programming is used as free and open-source software, runs on different types of the operating system, runs on 32 and 64-bit processors, graphical capabilities of ‘R’ are good, no license restrictions, for managing the data and for manipulating the data R programming is used, and no license restrictions are used. R Training in Chennai imparts quality education to the students.

Describe how to add datasets in R?

The function used for adding two data sets is the rbind () function and for using this function the column of two datasets must be the same. R Training in Chennai makes the student’s industry ready in this highly competitive world.

R Tutorial

It is considered to be widely used by leading corporates such as Airbnb, Google, and many others for the analysis of data by data scientists. Its deployment can be witnessed in the field of statistical computing, scientific research along data analytics.

R programming is a well-known language that is made used by marketers and researchers for the cleaning, visualizing, retrieving along the analysis of the data. Its popularity is due to the strong syntax along with a simple interface. Robert Gentleman and Ross Ihaka formulated this language whose first letters are kept as the language’s name.

Overview of R

This language enables the usage of functions along with looping and branching. The procedure for integration happens that are written in .Net, C, Python, or Fortran languages. It is possible to operate over Windows, Linux, and Mac.

Progression of R

Like every other programming language prevailing around the world, R programming has also undergone numerous changes. It came into existence in the year 1993 and during the mid of 1997, a team called the “R Core Team” modified the source code of R language.

Characteristics of R

  • As this language consists of conditionals, user-defined functions, loops, it is considered to be complex free.
  • It is good at both storage and data handling.
  • For making the process of data analysis filled with graphical facilities along with presenting it over a computer or even on papers.
  • This language is best in operating such as arrays, vectors, and also matrices.

Data Types

There are a variety of data types present in the R language such as wide character, double floating-point, integer, Boolean, floating-point, and many others. In general, it is very crucial to store data for its usage in the future. In other words, it is necessary to free up some space when any variable is created.

For every process, the operating system assigns memory as per the data type used. When R programming is compared with other languages such as Java and C, there is the presence of declared variables in other programming languages. The most commonly used R-objects are:

  • Matrices
  • Factors
  • Vectors
  • Arrays
  • Lists
  • Data frames


This is deployed for providing the user with storage in which programs can be manipulated. It can store the atomic vector, a combination of R objects along with a group of atomic vectors. A proper variable includes letters, underline characters, dot or number.


It is considered to be a compiler to accomplish certain logical as well as mathematical manipulations.

Types of operators

We have the following types of operators in R programming −

  • Miscellaneous Operators- %in%, %*%
  • Logical Operators- &, |, !
  • Assignment Operators- <−, <<−
  • Arithmetic Operators- +,-, *, /, %%, %/%, ^
  • Relational Operators- >, <, ==, <=, >=, !=

R-Decision making

In this, the programmer’s instruction plays a vital role in both evaluation and testing of them. This happens with any statement that is executed in any program.

R- Loops

At times, it is necessary to run several codes many times. In such a case, the execution of statements happens in an orderly manner where the execution of the first statement is given priority.


It is considered to be nothing more than a set of statements that are arranged together to perform any particular task. In this, the function acts as an object in the interpretation to control the function.

Function components

The components of a function consist of:

  • Arguments- This is considered to be the placeholder. Arguments are optional and this may have no arguments present in it.
  • Return value- It acts as the last expression for the evaluation.
  • Function name- This is the real name of the function.
  • Function body- It includes a cluster of statements, which defines the action of the function.


In R programming the value written under single or double quotes acts as a string. Even though the user creates it with a single quote, in R programming every string is stored in double-quotes.


Vector is considered to be the basic data objects which are categorized into six- integer, character, double, logical, raw, and complex.


This consists of various elements such as string, number, and vector within it.


These are the objects that arrange elements into the 2-D rectangular layout. Matrices that consist of numeric elements are used to perform mathematical calculations.


They are deployed for the storage of more than 2-D objects.


This data object is deployed for the categorization of data along with its storage that can be either integer or string.

R-Data frames

This is a 2-D array that consists of one variable along with a set of values.

Below are the features of a data frame.

  • names of the row must be unique.
  • data stored in the data frame may be a numeric, factor, or character type.
  • column names should not be empty.
  • Every column must have the same count of data items.


It is a set of functions, sampled data along with compiled data that are stored in a directory. It is possible to add on more packages when necessary in the future.

R-data reshaping

It is the way of changing the organization of data within a column and row. The process is accomplished by fetching the information as a data frame. R programming includes various split functions along with merging and interchanging of rows and columns in any data frame.

R-CSV files

It is possible to gather information from the files that are stored outside the R environment along with the writing of data into files such as CSV, XML, and many more that can be stocked along with accessing by the operating system. R programming will be able to read the files that are under the directory that the user is currently working into.


This spreadsheet is widely in usage by many of the users that help in storing various files such as .xlsx and even .xls format.

With the help of R, the user can write anything into the excel file.

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