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  • OOPs In JAVA: Object Oriented Programming Concepts With Examples In Java



    In this, we understand the Object-Oriented Programming (OOP) paradigm of Java, deeply with this table of content…
    What is Object-Oriented Programming and Other Programming Paradigm
    Classes in Java
    Objects in Java
    Methods in Java
    Static and Non Static methods in Java
    Getter and Setter Methods in Java
    Major Concepts or Principles Of Object Oriented Programming In Java
    Inheritance in Java
    Polymorphism in Java
    Data Abstraction In Java
    Encapsulation in Java

    What is Object-Oriented Programming and Other Programming Paradigms

    Object-oriented programming System(OOPs) is a programming concept based on the objects that interact with each other to perform the functions. Each object can be characterized with behavior and states. An object keeps the current state and the behavior in the fields and methods. It emphasizes the DRY(Don’t Repeat Yourself) Principle.

    For instance, an object could represent an email with properties like subject, title, body, and behaviors such as attachments, sending, organizing.

    OOPs categorizes entities as software objects that have some data associated with them to perform operations upon.

    Another common programming concept is Procedural Oriented Programming(POP), which structures a program like a food recipe that provides a finite number of steps, in the form of functions or code blocks, that flow sequentially in order to get the final result.

    Almost all the programming languages follow Object Oriented Programming System including Java, let us now jump to the concepts of OOPs in java.

    Major OOPs Concepts In Java

    Classes
    Objects
    Methods
    Inheritance
    Polymorphism
    Data Abstraction
    Encapsulation

    Classes In Java

    A class defines the attributes and behavior of an object. For example, if you have an Employee class, it can have attributes like name, salary, and age, whereas its behavior can include functions such as deduct or increment salary or calculate bonus, etc.

    Hope you understood Classes in java, next major concept of object-oriented programming is the Objects in Java.

    Objects In Java

    Objects are the instances of classes or derived attributes and behaviors from class with actual data. Here is an example program for demonstrating classes and objects in java.
    public class Main { int val_1 = 22; int val_2 = 32; public static void main(String[] args) { // creating multiple objects for the class main Main obj_1 = new Main(); Main obj_2 = new Main(); System.out.println(obj_1.val_1); System.out.println(obj_2.val_2); } }
    Output for the above program
    22 32
    Hope you understood Objects in java, next major concept of object oriented programming is the Methods in Java.

    Methods In Java

    Functions underclasses are known as methods. They define the behavior of a class. Here is an example for implementing methods under classes…
    import java.io.*; public class Main { static void method(String x) { System.out.println(“Hello From “+x+ “!”); public static void main(String[] args) { method(“Atufa”); }
    Output for the above program
    Hello From Atufa!
    You might have noticed that we use static or public access specifiers before the method name, let us understand static and public methods in Java.

    Static and non Static methods in Java

    In java, methods and classes are usually defined with static or public access modifiers.Defining methods or classes using static keywords makes them static, meaning they can be accessed outside the classes without creating an object for them.

    Hope you understood Methods in java well, the next major concept of object-oriented programming is the Inheritance in Java.

    Inheritance In Java

    You might have some inheritance or resemblance of behaviours in you like your parents.Just like this, you can inherit properties of one class from another.The newly inherited class is a derived or child class and the former as base or Parent class.

    Example Program  for  Inheritance implementation

    import java.io.*; class Main { // Main attribute protected String writer = “AL Sweigart”; // Main method public void famousBook() { System.out.println(“Automate the boring stuff with python”); } } class Author extends Main { private int books = 22; // Author attribute public static void main(String[] args) { // Create a Author object Author Book = new Author(); // Call the famousBook() method (from the Main class) on the Book object Book.famousBook(); // Display the value of the writer attribute (from the Main class) and the // number of the books from the Author class System.out.println(Book.writer + ” ” + Book.books); } }

    The Main class is the super class, whereas the Author is the derived or child class of Main.The main method famous book can be accessed by any derived class as it is defined as public.

    Here we just needed to add another attribute and method and the rest of the attributes and methods are added to the child class by adding the extends to class name Author and defining main() method.

    The output for the above program will be
    Automate the boring stuff with python AL Sweigart 22
    The final keyword
    To make a class not to be inherited by any other class, we can add the final keyword to the class name.
    import java.io.*; final class Main { // Main attribute protected String writer = “AL Sweigart”; // Main method public void famousBook() { System.out.println(“Automate the boring stuff with python”); } class Author extends Main { // this line will cause an error private int books = 22; public static void main(String[] args) { Author Book = new Author(); Book.famousBook(); System.out.println(Book.writer + ” ” + Book.books); }
    Which will give an error as
    prog.java:13: error: cannot inherit from final Main
    The different types of inheritance are single-level, multi-level and hierarchical inheritance. Hope you understood Inheritance in java well, the next major concept of object oriented programming is the Polymorphism in Java.

    Polymorphism In Java

    Polymorphism is when you use a class method in different ways or in more than one way.There are two types of polymorphism
    Run-time Polymorphism
    Compile-time Polymorphism
    Here is an example of a program to have a better understanding of Polymorphism..
    import java.io.*; class Shape { public void area() { System.out.println(“Geometrical shapes”); } class Circle extends Shape { public void area() { System.out.println(“pi*radius*radius”); } class Triangle extends Shape { public void area() { System.out.println(“half*base*height”); } class Main { public static void main(String[] args) { // create shape object Shape Shape = new Shape(); Shape Circle = new Circle(); // Create a Circle object Shape Triangle = new Triangle(); // Create a Triangle object System.out.println(“calling Shape method area”); Shape.area(); System.out.println(); System.out.println(“calling Circle method area”); Circle.area(); System.out.println(); System.out.println(“calling Triangle method area”); Triangle.area(); }

    In the above code, the class Shape is the Base class whereas Circle and Triangle are the derived or sub classes. The same method area works differently in all the classes, it returns the area of different shapes.

    The output for the above example
    calling Shape method area Geometrical shapes calling Circle method area pi*radius*radius calling Triangle method area half*base*height

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    Getter and Setter method In Java

    The attributes defined as private cannot be accessed outside the class, or the base class in case of inheritance.We will need public methods which can have access to the private attributes to retrieve or set the value of private attributes.

    Hope you understood Polymorphism in java well, the next major concept of object-oriented programming is the Encapsulation in Java.

    Encapsulation In Java

    Encapsulation in simple terms is to make the methods and attributes private or protected and give a level of security to be accessed outside the class. The keywords public, private and protected are used to give a defined level of access outside the class. Example program for Encapsulation.
    public class Encapsulation { /* private variables can only be accessed by public methods of same class */ private String nickName; private String habit; private int age;   /* getter method for accessing private variable age */ public int get_age() { return age; /* getter method for accessing private variable nickname */ public String get_name() { return nickName; /* getter method for accessing private variable habit */ public String get_habit() { return habit; /* setter method for setting value for private variable age */ public void set_age(int newAge) { age = newAge; /* setter method for setting value for private variable age */ public void set_name(String newName) { nickName = newName; /* setter method for setting value for private variable age */ public void set_habit(int newHabit) { habit = newHabit; }
    Now to test this class for encapsulation, in another file encaptest.java we will have this code,
    public class encaptest { public static void main(String[] args) { Encapsulation obj = new Encapsulation(); // setting values of the variables obj.set_name(“Atufa”); obj.set_habit(“Writing content for geeks..”); obj.set_age(18); // Displaying values of the variables System.out.println(“Writer’s name: ” + obj.get_name()); System.out.println(“Writer’s age: ” + obj.get_age()); System.out.println(“Writer’s habit: ” + obj.get_habit()); /* * Direct access of habit is not possible due to encapsulation * System.out.println(“Writer’s habit: ” + obj.habit); */ }
    Output for the above program is
    Writer’s name: Atufa Writer’s age: 18 Writer’s habit: Writing content for geeks..
    Hope you understood Encapsulation in java well, the next major concept of object oriented programming is the Data Abstraction in Java.

    Data Abstraction

    Abstraction is where in the user is kept unaware of the code that is used for implementation, for instance, when you are buying a brand new phone, it is one thing for you, although there are many individual parts in this.  Abstraction allows users to use the phone  without knowing the complexity of the parts that form the phone.

    In java you can make a class abstract by just prefixing the class name with the abstract keyword.

    An abstract method can be declared in the super class with an abstract keyword, and defined under any subclass.

    Here is an example program for abstraction

    import java.io.*; // An Abstract class abstract class Shape { // Abstract method (does not have a body) public abstract void area(); // Regular method public void property() { System.out.println(“A geometrical Shape”); } } // Subclass (inherit from Shape) class Circle extends Shape { public void area() { // The body of area() is provided here System.out.println(“Area of circle: pi*radius*radius”); } } // Subclass (inherit from Shape) class Triangle extends Shape { public void area() { // The body of area() is provided here System.out.println(“Area of triangle: half*base*height”); } } class Main { public static void main(String[] args) { Circle crc = new Circle(); // Create a Circle object crc.property(); crc.area(); Triangle tri = new Triangle(); // Create a Triangle object tri.property(); tri.area(); } }
    The class shape has been defined as an abstract class, and area as an abstract method, which have been defined under the derived classes, Circle and Triangle. Output for the above program
    A geometrical Shape Area of circle: pi*radius*radius A geometrical Shape Area of triangle: half*base*height

    This was the end of object-oriented programming and its concepts in java with example programs. To get in-depth knowledge of core Java and advanced java, J2EE,  SOA training along with its various applications and real-time projects using Servlets, Spring with Aspect Oriented Programming (AOP) architecture, Hibernate Framework,and Struts through JDBC you can enroll in Certified Java Course in Chennai or Certified Java Course in Bangalore by FITA or a virtual class for this course,at an affordable price, bundled with real-time projects, certification, support, and career guidance assistance and an active placement cell, to make you an industry required certified java developer.

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