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  • Static Keyword in Java


     

    Keywords in Programming Languages are the reserved words that you cannot use as a variable name or identifier because they have been already defined in the language either as a parameter or a statement.

    In java, there are 57 keywords or reserved names and ‘Static’ is one amongst them. Let us talk more about this static keyword with this table of content.

    What is statically used for?
    Static block
    Static method
    Static variable
    Static Classes
    Let us understand the static keyword and its implementation starting with…

    What is static used for In Java?

    Static keyword can be used within blocks of code, methods, variables, and classes by preceding the member name with ‘static’.Now let’s move on to learn how to use this keyword with each member, starting with

    Now that you have understood why we use static keywords, let us see its use cases, beginning with Static Block.

    Static Block In Java

    The static block is like a constructor, where you can define default values, except that values for all the objects will be the same. The static block gets executed only once, whereas the constructor will be executed as per

    the number of objects. A static block can be accessed with an object.

    Let me show you an example
    // Java program to demonstrate static blocks class Main { // static variables static int a = 10; static int b;   // static block static { System.out.println(“changing the b value under the static block.”); b = a * 10; System.out.println(); } public static void main(String[] args) { System.out.println(“under the main function:”); System.out.println(“The value of a is “+a); System.out.println(“The value of b is “+b); } }
    Output for the above program
    changing the b value under the static block.   under the main function: The value of a is 10 The value of b is 100
    As You noticed the static block gets executed first before the main function, Here is another example to demonstrate static block with a constructor.
    // Java program to demonstrate static blocks class StatTest { static int a; int b; static { a = 10; System.out.println(“static block executed “); }   StatTest(){ System.out.println(“Constructor executed”); } }   class Main { public static void main(String args[]) { StatTest st1 = new StatTest(); StatTest st2 = new StatTest(); } }
    Output for the above program
    static block executed  Constructor executed Constructor executed
    Although we have two objects, the static block is executed only once, and the constructor twice. Now that you have understood static blocks, let’s move on to static variables in java.

    Static Variable In Java

    Static variables can be used to define a common property for all the objects, like a common college name for the students, or the common company name of several employees.

    Let’s understand the static variables in java with a token program example. The following program is supposed to give a new token without the use of static variables.
    /*Java Program to demonstrate that instance variable get memory each time when we create an object of class */   class Token { int count = 0; //gets memory every time, instance is created   Token() { count++; // incrementing TOken value System.out.println(count); }   public static void main(String args[]) {   // Creating Token objects   Token c1 = new Token(); Token c2 = new Token(); Token c3 = new Token(); Token c4 = new Token(); } }
    Output for the above program
    1 1 1 1
    Now let’s try to implement the same with static variables.
    /*Java Program to demonstrate that static variable */ class Token { static int count = 0; //gets memory once,and retains the value   Token() { count++; // incrementing TOken value System.out.println(count); }   public static void main(String args[]) {   // Creating Token objects   Token c1 = new Token(); Token c2 = new Token(); Token c3 = new Token(); Token c4 = new Token(); } }
    Output for the above program
    1 2 3 4

    Hope you understood static variables in java with the above program, so next up we have static methods in java.

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    Static methods in java

    Declaring methods static, would not require you to create an object and then call the method, and instead, you can refer to them using class methods because static methods are of class rather than the objects of the class.

    Here is an example to demonstrate the static method in java.
    class Company { int salary; String name; String emp_type; static String company_name = “FITA”;   // static method for changing the value of a static variable static void companyname(String c) { company_name = c; }   // constructor to initialize the variable Company(int r, String n, String t) { salary = r; name = n; emp_type = t; }   // method to display values void display() { System.out.println(name + “:” +salary + “:” + company_name); } public static void main(String args[]) { Company.companyname(“FITA Academy”);// calling change method to change company name // creating instances of class Company Company e1 = new Company(50000, “Shaneela”,”developer”); Company e2 = new Company(20000, “Kartick”,”finance controller”); Company e3 = new Company(30000, “Shareef”,”digital marketer”);   // calling display method e1.display(); e2.display(); e3.display(); } }
    Output for the above program
    Shaneela:50000: FITA Academy Kartick:20000: FITA Academy Shareef:30000: FITA Academy

    You might have observed that the main method is declared static so that  JVM does not require to create an object to invoke the main method, which also makes it memory efficient.

    There is a restriction that the static methods cannot use or invoke non-static data members or methods directly nor can you use the this and super keyword in a static context. Let me show you an example of this.

    class TestStat { int a = 20;// non static variable   public static void main(String args[]) { System.out.println(a); } }   // Output for the above program   /*Main.java:5: error: non-static variable a cannot be referenced from a static context System.out.println(a);*/
    Hope you understood why we use static methods and when, next up we have static classes in java.

    Static Class In Java

    Only a nested class can be made static so that nested classes do not need a reference to an outer class. Although inner classes can access all the static and non-static members, the static class can only access static members of the class. Let me show you an example.

    public class Main { private static String name = “FITA”; private String str= “Academy”; // Static class static class Employee { String com_name; Employee(String t) { com_name = t; } // non-static method public void display() { // System.out.println(str); System.out.println(name); System.out.println(com_name); } }   public static void main(String args[]) { Main.Employee e1 = new Main.Employee(“Academy”); e1.display();   } }
    Output for the above program
    FITA Academy

    The commented line to print str would cause an error saying, “non-static variable name cannot be referenced from a static context” if executed.

    This was all about a static block, static method, static variables, and static classes in java, their implementations and use cases along with example programs. To get in-depth knowledge of core Java and advanced java, J2EE  SOA training along with its various applications and real-time projects using Servlets, Spring with Aspect-Oriented Programming (AOP) architecture, Hibernate Framework, and Struts through JDBC you can enroll in Certified Java Training in Chennai or Certified Java Training in Bangalore by FITA or a virtual class for this course, at an affordable price, bundled with real-time projects, certification, support, and career guidance assistance and an active placement cell, to make you an industry required certified java developer.

    FITA’s courses training is delivered by professional experts who have worked in the software development and testing industry for a minimum of 10+ years, and have experience of working with different software frameworks and software testing designs.




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